Academic journal article International Review of Management and Business Research

The Influence of Workplace Bullying on Employee's Job Performance, Job Satisfaction and Turnover Intention in a Newly Established Private Hospital

Academic journal article International Review of Management and Business Research

The Influence of Workplace Bullying on Employee's Job Performance, Job Satisfaction and Turnover Intention in a Newly Established Private Hospital

Article excerpt

Introduction

The workplace bullying, defined as the situation in which the individuals experience systematic mocking, maltreatment and harassment or are subjected to the social exclusion at the workplaces, is not something new and is a phenomenon that has possibly been in existence since the beginning of time. However, this subject's becoming a current issue as a workplace problem has a history of only 10-15 years at most. The concept of bullying was first discussed in detail in the mid 80's when the Norwegian and Swedish organizational psychologists began to investigate the phenomenon along with its extent, causes and results.

Today, the workplace bullying constitutes a problem for many institutions, irrespective of their scale and industry. This antisocial behavior confronts the institutions that operate in the developed and developing countries and brings forward the results documented in detail in the scientific literature. On the individual level, the bullying may cause suicidality and loss of honor and self-esteem (Djukorvik et al., 2004), high stress, posttraumatic stress disorder, phobias, sleep disorders and increased depression (Salin, 2003), unhappiness, anxiety, withdrawal and unreasonable prudence and may therefore affect the performance (Hoel and Cooper, 2003). On the organizational level, it negatively influences the employee co mmitment, job satisfaction, absenteeism and staff turnover rate (Oghojafor et al., 2012).

Although it is difficult to define, the workplace bullying may be viewed as "all the situations where one or more individual feel subjected for a certain time to negative acts against which they are unable to defend themselves" (Einarsen et al., 1994, p. 383). Regarding this concept that emerged as a result of the studies in the Scandinavian countries (Einarsen and Skogstad, 1996; Vartia, 1996), researches were conducted in various countries (Rayner et al., 2002) and similar words such as "harassment" and "disturbance" were used by different researchers in order to define the concept (Einarsen et al., 1994; Einarsen et al., 2003). The bullying may occur in the form of negative conducts such as the invasion of the victim's privacy, spread of gossips, verbal attack, withholding information or deprivation of responsibility and excessive criticism or follow-up of the work (Keashly, 1998; Zapf et al., 1996).

The job satisfaction, which is maybe the most studied topic in the behavioral sciences (Judge and Church, 2000), is in the position of a collecting point for several theories and models that explain the individual attitudes and behaviors (Judge and Klinger, 2007). In fac t, "the job satisfaction research has practical applications in terms of improvement of the individual lives as well as the organizational effectiveness" (Judge and Klinger, 2007, p. 393). In an environment where there are many definitions of job satisfaction in the literature, the following definition by Locke (1976, p. 1304) has been regarded as a standard and is therefore adopted also in this study: "A pleasurable or positive emotional state resulting from the appraisal of one's job or job experiences". Moreover, although there are several criteria of job satisfaction in the literature, we adopt the notion, by following Markovits et al., (2010), that the job satisfaction is comprised by two dimensions, namely the intrinsic satisfaction and extrinsic satisfaction. On the other hand, the job performance is a consequence related to the organizational context and depends on many factors in the institution. The importance of the job performance in terms of organizational productivity is extremely great, as may be seen in several studies attempting to correlate the performance with many structures. Despite the public awareness about bullying, the state-funded researches in this field and also the well-established legislative regulations against bullying in many developed countries (Quine, 2001), the situation in the developing countries such as Turkey is quite worrisome. …

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