Academic journal article International Review of Management and Business Research

A Framework and Tools for Indigenous Knowledge Human

Academic journal article International Review of Management and Business Research

A Framework and Tools for Indigenous Knowledge Human

Article excerpt

Introduction

Human capital is an important resource for every person, organisation and society because it is an important resource to perform activities, especially, knowledge driven activities and organisations. Human capital (HC) is considered as knowledge, skills and experience of humans. These elements can be used to increase the effectiveness of people's activities or to support the achievement of their goals. Consequently, people and organisations have paid highly intention in human capital development or creation in order to increase the capabilities of their staff employees. In order to develop the human capital, organisations or communities need to monitor particular human capital of employees or members in order to ensure that organisations would have resources to perform activities and for business growth. Generally, human capital measurement is mainly focused on processes of human capital creation and resources used in the processes rather than the human capital embedded in humans. Meanwhile, human capital creation is focused on schooling or formal education, and human development programmes (Marrvewijd and Timmers, 2003), and learning processes (Hatch and Dyer, 2004). Those things indicate that only what people intake instead of what people have as human capital which can be useful for them. For Indigenous Knowledge (IK) HC, it is hard to be measured by formal education and human development department. This is because indigenous knowledge would not be taught in formal schools, and not a part of human resource department under organisational context. As a result, human capital measurement would be focused on both dimensions-what people intake and what people retain. For IK-HC measurement, common items to measure both dimensions would be based on the nature of IK and areas of IK.

Literature Review

Human Capital

Human capital (HC) is an intangible asset which can be classified as an intellectual capital which is embedded in humans (Baron and Armstrong, 2007). Human capital is considered as knowledge in the form of tacit knowledge including skills, competencies, experience (Hatch and Dyer, 2004) and talents (Davenport, 1999). Furthermore, Beaker (1962) considered HC includes behaviour, reputation and beliefs. The behaviour is actions and words of people which are the results of their practices, beliefs and ethics (Davenport, 1999). This type of HC is useful for individuals, as organisations do not only considering employees' education and experience when they recruit new employees, but they would also consider behaviour and characteristics that match a particular job (Ehrenberg and Smith, 2003). Furthermore, several researchers have considered HC from the educational perspective in terms of the parents' education, and the education and learning investment of their offspring (Becker, 1962; Baron and Armstrong, 2007). Thus, HC can be viewed in several forms, (both explicit and tacit forms), which can be classified into three types according to its definition and characteristics as follows;

First, formal education is an explicit form of HC (Schultz, 1961). Human capital in this form includes materials or equipment invested for education and parents' education (Coleman, 1988). This form of HC can be referred to as "explicit knowledge' and "declarative knowledge' which shows the knowledge or HC particular individuals possessing or intake. However, they do not show that those people can use such knowledge or HC to perform activities (Nahapiet and Ghoshal, 1998).

Second, tacit human capital is concerned with skills, competencies, experience and talent that are embedded in humans (Davenport, 1999; Baron and Armstrong, 2007). This kind of HC is referred to as the understanding and abilities of people' to do something. It can be compared with "know how" or procedural knowledge which is embedded in human procedures, work processes and routines (Badaracco, 1991). This kind of knowledge or HC emerged as a result of work experience and practice over a certain periods of time (Sanchez, 1997; Skyrme, 1999). …

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