Academic journal article Kuram ve Uygulamada Egitim Bilimleri

Effectiveness of Video Modeling Provided by Mothers in Teaching Play Skills to Children with Autism

Academic journal article Kuram ve Uygulamada Egitim Bilimleri

Effectiveness of Video Modeling Provided by Mothers in Teaching Play Skills to Children with Autism

Article excerpt

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a complex neuro-developmental disorder that causes social communication and interaction impairments. Individuals diagnosed with ASD also display limited/repeated interests and behaviors. Symptoms begin in early childhood, and ASD causes various developmental problems, and significantly hinders daily living functions (American Psychiatric Association, 2013). Although there is still no medical treatment for this complex developmental disability, early and intensive behavioral intervention programs using methods based on applied behavior analysis have shown to effect significant changes in the lives of individuals diagnosed with ASD (Eikeseth & Klintwall, 2014; Eldevik, Eikeseth, Jahr, & Smith, 2006; Lovaas, 1987; McEachin, Smith, & Lovaas, 1993; Sallows & Graupner, 2005).

In early and intensive behavioral intervention programs and other comprehensive practices that make use of methods based on applied behavior analysis, parents' participation in the instruction process alongside experts create positive results both for the individuals with autism as well as for the parents. Studies show that children attending intensive programs based on the principles of applied behavior analysis derive more benefits compared to children who attend less intensive programs (Eldevik et al., 2006; Lovaas, 1987). Parents' participation in the instruction process can increase the intensity of the instruction provided to children with ASD. Parents can also help children generalize the acquired skills at home and social settings, and thus, improving the quality of the process. Some studies have shown that parents' participation in the education of children with ASD has benefits other than facilitating acquisition of skills and minimizing behavioral problems; for example, more positive parent-child interaction, improvement in the self-perception of parental competence, reduced stress, the ability to spend more time on social and leisure activities, and consequent improvement in the quality of life of both parents and their children. (Brookman-Frazee, Vismara, Drahota, Stahmer, & Openden, 2009; Koegel, Bimbela, & Schreibman, 1996; Machalicek et al., 2014; Najdowski & Goud, 2014).

However, participation of parents in the education of their children with ASD may vary in intensity. In some cases, parents assume the entire responsibility for an intensive instruction program, whereas in other cases they assume only partial responsibility, for example, by learning and implementing methods used to teach certain skills and/or minimize behavioral problems (Najdowski & Goud, 2014; Wong et al., 2013). In a research review conducted to identify effective interventions in children with ASD (National Autism Center, 2015), 48 experimental studies in which parents were trained as trainers or to use certain strategies were examined. Results of this examination showed that parents' training and participation in the education of their children improved the interaction and play skills of children with ASD and mitigated symptoms of autism, problem behaviors, and limited/repeated interests and behaviors. Previous studies show that parents are able to teach many skills to their children, including self-help skills (Cavkaytar & Pollard, 2009; Ozcan & Cavkaytar, 2009), communication skills (Charlop-Christy & Carpenter, 2000; Park, Alber-Morgan, & Canella-Malone, 2011), imitation skills (Cardon, 2012; Ingersoll & Gergans, 2007), social skills (Olçay-Gül 2012), and joint attention skills (Rocha, Schreibman, & Stahmer, 2007; Schertz & Odom, 2007). Studies also show that parents are able to learn methods based on applied behavior analysis, including discrete trial teaching (Lafasakis & Sturmey, 2007), pivotal response training (Koegel, Symon, & Koegel, 2002), incidental teaching (Charlop-Christy & Carpenter, 2000), PECS (Park et al., 2011), activity schedules (Krantz, MacDuff, & McClannahan, 1993), script fading (Reagon & Higbee, 2009), and social stories (Olçay-Gül 2012). …

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