Academic journal article European Journal of Psychotraumatology

Psychometric Properties of the Trauma and Distress Scale, TADS, in an Adult Community Sample in Finland

Academic journal article European Journal of Psychotraumatology

Psychometric Properties of the Trauma and Distress Scale, TADS, in an Adult Community Sample in Finland

Article excerpt

Responsible Editor: Marylene Cloitre, National Center for PTSD in Palo Alto, CA, USA.

Copyright: © 2016 Raimo K. R. Salokangas et al. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, allowing third parties to copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format, and to remix, transform, and build upon the material, for any purpose, even commercially, under the condition that appropriate credit is given, that a link to the license is provided, and that you indicate if changes were made. You may do so in any reasonable manner, but not in any way that suggests the licensor endorses you or your use.

Received: 17 October 2015; Revised: 18 February 2016; Accepted: 22 February 2016; Published: 30 March 2016

Competing interests and funding: There is no conflict of interest in the present study for any of the authors. The study was funded by Turku University Central Hospital (EVO funding). Dr. Patterson was partly funded by the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) through the Collaborations for Leadership in Applied Health Research and Care in the West Midlands (CLAHRC-WM). Professor Salokangas was partly funded by Oy H. Lundbeck Ab, Finland.

*Correspondence to: Raimo K. R. Salokangas, Department of Psychiatry, University of Turku, Kunnallissairaalantie 20 FI-20700 Turku, Finland, Email:

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There is growing evidence that a history of childhood abuse and neglect is not uncommon among those who experience mental disorder (Iffland, Brähler, Neuner, Häuser, & Glaesmer, 2013; Read, Hammersley, & Rudegeair, 2007; Saed, Talat, & Saed, 2013; Schüssler-Fiorenza Rose, Xie, & Stineman, 2014), and several studies have indicated that childhood trauma experiences and adverse life events are associated with adult psychopathology including personality disorders, depression, anxiety, dissociative symptoms, substance abuse, suicidal behaviour, and psychosis (Briere, Hodges, & Godbout, 2010; Draijer & Langland, 1999; Ferguson & Dacey, 1997; Pine & Cohen, 2002; Salzman et al., 1993; Soloff, Lynch, & Kelly, 2002; Triffleman, Marmar, Delucchi, & Ronfeldt, 1995; Varese et al., 2012). Thus, adverse and traumatic childhood experiences are of great interest to psychiatry, and several interview and self-report instruments for their assessment have been developed (e.g., Bernstein et al., 1994; Bernstein, Ahluvalia, Pogge, & Handelsman, 1997; Bremner, Vermetten, & Mazure, 2000; Bremner, Bolus, & Mayer, 2007; Briere and Runtz, 1990; Felitti et al., 1998; Gallagher, Flye, Hurt, Stone, & Hull, 1989; Roy & Perry, 2004; Thabrew, De Sylva, & Romans, 2012). Yet, while many focus on sexual abuse (SexAb), relatively few assess multiple types of trauma or adversity, possibly because a consistent understanding and agreed definitions of differing types of trauma and their impact is still missing (Thabrew et al., 2012). A clinician-administered assessment (the Childhood Trauma Interview, Bernstein et al., 1994) resulted in the development of a self-report inventory the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) (Bernstein et al., 1997) that included childhood emotional, physical, and sexual abuse, and as well as emotional and physical neglect as core domains. Another self-report questionnaire, the Early Trauma Inventory-Self Report, assesses physical, emotional, and sexual abuse, as well as general traumas (Bremner et al., 2007). Emotional and physical abuse, emotional and physical neglect, and sexual abuse are generally regarded in the literature as five core childhood adversity domains (Burgermeister, 2007; Thabrew et al., 2012). A broader concept of adversity can include peer emotional abuse (EmoAb); peer bullying; witnessing violence against a parent or sibling; bereavement and other loss; parental mental illness; stigma and discrimination; and other traumatic events such as natural disasters (Kessler, Davis, & Kendler, 1997; Teicher & Parigger, 2015; Varese et al. …

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