Academic journal article Journal of Physical Education and Sport

Coaching School Hockey in Malaysia: A Exploratory Analysis and Effect of Improvised TGfU Pedagogical Model on Small Sided Game Play

Academic journal article Journal of Physical Education and Sport

Coaching School Hockey in Malaysia: A Exploratory Analysis and Effect of Improvised TGfU Pedagogical Model on Small Sided Game Play

Article excerpt


Generally coaches and trainers pay much attention in the area of skill development, anthropometrics, skill developments, physical-biomotor abilities psycho-psychology, sports injuries, periodization and biomechanics that can influence training to enhance sports and game performance. However, these practitioner to certain extent undermine the importance of pedagogical approaches that plays crucial role in helping the players to learn tactics and skill development that inter-relate with games performance. On the other hand, the central aim of pedagogist highly interested in teaching and learning processes in term of achieving education objectives of physical activities and lifestyle, motor skills and uplifting attitude whereas optimizing performance were given less consideration. Therefore, a partnership between between coaching and teaching philosophy between is essential as to optimize performance as well as to achieve educational standard

Now withstand, physical educationist, sports pedagogist, sports theory generator very much into implementing GBAs (Game Base Approaches) such Teaching Games for Understanding (TGfU) model, Tactical Game Model, Game Sense as a instructional and curriculum approach in teaching students to learn game and as well as upgrading game performance.

GBA's approach such TGfU gaining momentum internationally across the globe and is a superior model for teaching and coaching games compared to a technical-lead skills-based model (Burler & Griffin, 2010Grehaigne, Godbout & Bouthier , 2001; Grehaigne & Godbout, 1995). Skilled-based approach is considered too structured, with warming-up activities and skill drills as the main components but they deprive students of opportunities to engage in game play. (Kirk & Macpail, 2002; Hopper, 2002; Rink, 2002; Turner & Martinek, 1999). Detected information via TGfU research indicated through questioning strategy and problem solving activities able to develop tactical creativity and tactical game intelligence during the early stages of youth sports development in team sports like soccer, basketball, hockey, and handball (Memmert, Baker & Bertsch, 2010; Wein, 2006). TGfU model and Tactical Game model (TGM) promote a high level of game creativity and intelligence among players. The revised TGfU model by Kirk and Macphail (2002) which incorporate elements of thinking strategically, cue perception in solving game problem under the situational learning perspective. Furthermore by adding pedagogical principles (sampling, modification-representation, modificationexaggeration, tactical complexity) in six steps of original TGfU model (Holt, Strean & Bengoechea (2002) grounded positively as educational games teaching underpinning theory

However, Rink (2010) expressed to be cautious in celebrating TGfU as a global games' pedagogy. As TGfU still lacks of underpinning elements to be grounded as pedagogical approach for teaching and coaching context. Eventhough TGfU has been strengthen with partnership ecological constraints led theory. In spite of that TGfU approach has been criticized by motor learning experts as it is still lacks of unified theoretical underpinnings especially in term of perceptual-motor learning perspective (Miller, 2015; Chow, Davids, Button , Shuttleworth, Renshaw & Araujo, 2007). Furthermore, the present writer, feels if TGfU to be relevant and grounded solidly for coaching context, players individual attributes such as anthropometric and fitness to be asses first prior to plan the TGfU coaching units/lesson with different constraints level.

Number of detected anthropometric literature revealed that suitable physique plays a predominant role for success in games and sports. Similarly research in field hockey, players' game configurations and outcome performance were affected by body composition, somatayping and physical motor-ability. Apart from tactical decision making and skill execution , anthropometric of a lean body, sprinting capability of 50 - 60 meters, cardiovascular fitness (V02 max), agility, leg power, speed, strength and anaerobic capacity are the characteristics that significantly influence game configurations and performances in the field hockey (Mannal, Khanna, Dhara, 2004; Sharma, Tripathi, & Koley, 2012; Wassmer & Mookerjee, 2002). …

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