Academic journal article Journal of Physical Education and Sport

Comparison of Influence of Eight-Week Preparatory Period on Changes in Selected Morphological Parameters in Seventeen-Year-Old Football and Ice Hockey Players

Academic journal article Journal of Physical Education and Sport

Comparison of Influence of Eight-Week Preparatory Period on Changes in Selected Morphological Parameters in Seventeen-Year-Old Football and Ice Hockey Players

Article excerpt

Introduction

Elite sport is closely linked with performance, which is the essence of it and without which elite sport would be meaningless. Therefore, maximum performance is the ultimate goal in performance and elite sport. During the past decades there have been significant changes in world sport with a direct effect on the evolution of the training process. The progress is driven by the constant increase in the number of competitions, high financial incentives for elite players, closer cooperation between coaches, and the introduction of modern sports technology and training methods (Issurin, 2010). It is obvious that all of these changes are reflected in the training process and subsequently in the actual game performance of a football or ice hockey player.

Football is of an intermittent load character with changes in physical load (Bujnovský, Malý, Zahálka, & Malá, 2015). Running at high to maximum speed (lasting 30-90 seconds) is followed by running at medium speeds (lasting 3-6 s) or intervals of a lower intensity activity - standing, walking, jogging, running at lower speeds (lasting up to 10 seconds). Lower intensity intervals outweigh high and maximum speed running intervals and are of a recovery nature (Psotta et al., 2006). Individual activities change 10-15 times per minute (Ekblom, 2003). An elite football player covers 10-11 km during a 90-minute match, a goalkeeper covers 4km (Stølen et al., 2005). Average oxygen consumption (VO2) during a match is 70-75% of maximum oxygen consumption (VO2max) of a player and corresponds with exercise intensity of 5-10% below the anaerobic threshold (Psotta et al., 2006). Currently in soccer, a player's strength, speed and endurance are an extremely important components in terms of an active approach in both offensive and defensive phases, which are characterised by an involvement of a greater number of players (Maly, Zahalka, Mala, & Teplan, 2014).

Ice hockey is one of the fastest and most demanding sports games. From a physiological perspective, ice hockey is an interval and intermittent type of physical activity, which requires a wide range of motor skills, reaction and decision-making abilities, quality and coordination of analysers, and a high level of overall fitness. The game itself is characterized by changing cyclic (skating) and acyclic physical activities (shooting). Short periods of maximum acceleration and sprint alternate with smooth skating, personal challenges, passing and shooting. An ice hockey match is of an interval character represented by approximately 50-60 second periods of load intermitted by 10-20 second periods. The load-rest ratio is usually 1: 3 to 1: 5. The total active time of a player in a match is on average 20 minutes of net time. Average heart rate (HR) during the game is around 170 to 175 beats/min. and during rest 120 beats/min. In players of junior age the average HR on the ice achieves 90% or more during each shift. On average, the players use 70-80% of their maximum aerobic power; there are differences due to various skating levels of individual players. Physiological demands on the players vary depending on the position of each player in the team (goalkeeper, defender, forward) and their playing style (Brocherie et al., 2005; Hoff et al., 2005; Manners, 2004; Montgomery, 2006; Quinney et al., 2008; Sigmund, Kohn, Sigmundová, in press; Vescovi et al., 2006).

The facts mentioned above have an effect on the structure of sports training with regard to sports specialization. Period around seventeen years of age goes concurrently with period of significant development morpho-functional parameters. In this period it is possible to gradually maximize burden teenage body, of course, always with respect to the healthy development of individuals. Impact load is then reflected in the level of development of individual morphological of young athletes. The training of an ice hockey player should focus especially on the development of strength, along with the development of anaerobic performance (Burr et al. …

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