Academic journal article Researchers World

The Influence of Pomelo Juice (Citrus Maxima Var Nambangan), Vitamin C and Lycopene toward Mda Level of Mouse (Mus Musculus) Hepatic Tissue Which Exposure by Ochratoxina

Academic journal article Researchers World

The Influence of Pomelo Juice (Citrus Maxima Var Nambangan), Vitamin C and Lycopene toward Mda Level of Mouse (Mus Musculus) Hepatic Tissue Which Exposure by Ochratoxina

Article excerpt

INTRODUCTION:

Ochratoxin (OTA) is the kind of mycotoxins which is produced by the mildew. Mycotoxins is commonly be found as contaminants on the food materials and the processed food, which are in the cereals like corn, wheat, rice, nuts, soybean, coffee bean, cacao bean, spice, grape and fruits (Papachristou and Markaki, 2010).

On the developed countries, regulation that arranges the amount of ochratoxin contaminant in the food ingredients is being implemented and strictly supervised. Ochratoxin level which is permitted inside the food is different in each countries. European commission committee on food is recommend the ochratoxin level inside the food should not exceeded than 14 ng/kg inside the food materials, while World Health Organization (WHO) sets the maximum limit of ochratoxin in cereals is 5 microgram/kg for the raw nuts and 3 microgram/kg for processed food product (Clark, 2004; O'Brien et al., 2010).

Ochratoxin metabolism in the night is producing the reactive metabolite. This change is being catalysis by P450 enzyme by oxidize the ochratoxin through the chain reaction of hidroklasi substrate (Hastuti, 2001). This chain reaction will produce O2 (superoxide) and H2O2. O2 ·- which is dangerous when there is concurrent with H2O2 because it can formed the hydroxyl radical (OH ·). Besides that, OH· may react with transition metal like Fe2+ and Cu2+ through the Fenton reaction (Halliwell and Gutteridge, 2007).

The damage cell that caused by free radicals may occur through the lipid peroxide of cell membrane or organelles. Free radicals may cause the peroxide on polyunsaturated fatty acid ( polyunsaturated fatty acid = PUFA) which constructed the cell membrane. This damage is occurring through the chain reaction which triggered by the free radicals.

Lipid peroxidation of membrane cell will produce the final result called aldehyde peroxide like Malondyaldehid (MDA) (Setiati, 2003). Malondyaldehid is the biggest aldehyde which is produced by free radicals. Malondyaldehid is extensively use as the indicator of oxidative stress which can be specifically determined as well as non-specifically in a measurement using tiobarbiturat acid (Winarsi, 2007). Lipid peroxide on cell membrane will cause the increasing of membrane permeability that resulting in passive mitochondria swelling that lead to the aggravating of cell damage (Hayati, 2011). The damage of mitochondria membrane will cause the decreasing of ATP production which led to disruption of cell membrane permeability and pump of Na- K, it is lead to the water accumulation inside the cell and organelles (hydropic degeneration). The reversible process of cell will turn to irreversible and triggering the necrosis death of cell if there is increasing of ion calcium intracellular accumulation which incoming to the cell as the result of membrane cell permeability disruption (Gavin, 2007).

Basically several of free radicals like O2·-, H2O2, and OH· can be formed in normal metabolic process, but this may mitigates by the antioxidant enzyme such as catalase, superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione and the other antioxidant compound which is gaining from the food materials, like vitamin C, vitamin E, and selenium. Continuously induction of free radicals and the increasing of free radicals amount which come from outside of the body may cause the balance disorder of antioxidant, this is resulting the oxidative stress.

The addition of antioxidant supplement which is come from the outside of the body is one of the effective ways in reducing the oxidative stress. One of the food materials which are containing antioxidant is the Pomelo fruit that is well known bearing the vitamin C and lycopene. Pomelo fruit ( Citrus maxima) is proven containing vitamin C and lycopene that having the antioxidant effect. Lycopene is working as antioxidant which catching the free radicals (Scavenger antioxidant) and breaking the peroxide chain which triggered by free radicals (Chain breaking antioxidant), while the vitamin C working as the antioxidant by catching the free radicals only. …

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