Academic journal article Review of Artistic Education

Evaluation of Programmes in Psychomotor Therapy

Academic journal article Review of Artistic Education

Evaluation of Programmes in Psychomotor Therapy

Article excerpt

1. Introduction189

The goal of the paper is to analyze and evaluate programmes in psychomotor therapy, which were realized and published in master's theses of therapeutic educators. The goal of the evaluation was an effort to capture effective factors in psychomotor therapy in therapeutic education in its application in various client groups. The paper is constructed as a review study and a meta-analysis of conducted researches; however, it is based on the original research data, not on the analyses of findings. Researches published in the years 2000-2013 and realized as diploma researches of students of therapeutic education in the area of psychomotor therapy were included in the study. First, the authors of the paper define psychomotor therapy in therapeutic education and its place within the art therapies. They point out the components of psychomotor (neuromotor, sensory-motor, psychomotor and social-motor), which represent the establishing paradigms of setting goals in psychomotor therapy and the consecutive understanding of its effective factors. Expression of the clients in their own way becomes an artistic creative action in psychomotor therapy. People do not execute movements of the body automatically, but in a deeper connection with their mental activity and social interactions. The importance of body work in psychotherapy was, for example, proved by Davis190. Art in movement is a means of self-expression also for people who do not have the possibility to express verbally and it has very strong positive therapeutic effects.

The first part of the study is oriented descriptively. It outlines the external factors of realized psychomotor programmes: target group from the perspective of the problem solved or the area of support and from the biodromal perspective (pre-natal age, early age, pre-school age, primary and secondary school age, adolescence, adulthood and senior age); frequency of sessions; length of programme and the number of recorded sessions.

The second part of the study is oriented analytically. The authors processed psychomotor programmes from the perspective of the components of psychomotor and evaluated them on a five-point scale according to the presence of these components as effective factors of psychomotor therapy. Based on this evaluation, the authors interpret the research results in the context of the theory of psychomotor therapy and its usage in various groups of clients.

2. Theoretical background of psychomotor therapy

Movement is a part of human being. It is present in heartbeat, breathing or blinking of the eye. Except the area of the human body, everything is surrounded by movement - in everyday life, in blowing of the wind, in rising of the sun during the day. Already in the past, movement was considered one of the ways in which the unconscious can gain a concrete form.191 According to Szabová192, movement is everywhere around us, it was connected with the development of our planet, the creation and development of life and humankind. Movement accompanies our life; it is in the air, water, fire, earth or in the nature. Movement is an expression of life, a means of communication and a source of self-awareness. It is a basic necessity of life. These all are definitions of movement as such. Psychomotor therapy is therapy through movement. It uses the characteristics of movement and its dynamics for expression of people. The main theoretical background of psychomotor therapy is psychomotor itself. This term first appeared before the end of the 19th century, then, however, describing an area of psychology dealing with the study of perception.193 Psychomotor in its most simple meaning indicates a close connection of motor functions (somatic activity) with psyche (mental activity). In this context, Kiphard194 wrote that the mental and physical area a human are in such close relationship that we have to look at them as at two sides of one happening. He also mentioned that psychomotor as such in its broader concept may be divided into certain components: neuromotor, sensory-motor, psychomotor and social-motor. …

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