Academic journal article Indian Journal of Positive Psychology

Adolescence Psychological Well-Being in Relation to Spirituality and Pro-Social Behaviour

Academic journal article Indian Journal of Positive Psychology

Adolescence Psychological Well-Being in Relation to Spirituality and Pro-Social Behaviour

Article excerpt

Adolescence is the inter-mediatory stage of growth between childhood and adulthood. At these stage individuals perceptions of psychological wellbeing is influenced by environmental factors and psychological factors (Mead, 1928). As an impact of modernization adolescence are becoming more self-centered, logic oriented and becoming more concerned about satisfying their materialistic needs. There is a dramatic increase in the use of media and technology by adolescents. A world overwhelmed by a powerful media where children and young people are confronted by images of so many different lifestyles androle models, many of which are not always the most positive influences. Even their social lives revolve around the web, iPods, and cell phones (Roberts, Yaya, & Manolis, (2014). Media portrayals of adolescents often seem to emphasize the problems that can be a part of adolescence. Gang violence, school shootings, alcohol-related accidents, drug abuse, and suicides involving teens are all too frequently reflected in newspaper headlines and movie plots. In the professional literature, too, adolescence is frequently portrayed as a negative stage oflifeaperiod of storm and stress to be survived or endured (Arnett, 1999). Currently, modern society witnessed an enormouns studies, which revealed adolescents feel their lives are not worthy (Schalkwijk, 2104; Wilburn, & Smith, 2005;Du Bois-Reymond, 1998; Harrington, 2001) become disconnected from their community or society (White, 2004), emotional instability (Thompson, et al., 2012), poor in mental health (Dashiff et al 2009; Kapphahn, Morreale, Rickert, & Walker, 2006).

So, we have always been interested in the answer to the question: What is a good life? Frequently, the good life is directly connected to well-being and a happy life. Already in the age of the old Greeks, Aristotle (384 322 BCE) wrote that the quest for happiness is the most important striving of men (Van Dierendonck, Díaz, Rodríguez-Carvajal, Blanco, & Moreno-Jiménez, 2008). Throughout history, philosophers and religious leaders have suggested that diverse characteristics, such as love, wisdom, and nonattachment, are the cardinal elements of a fulfilled existence. Utilitarian's such as Jeremy Bentham, however, argued that the presence of pleasure and the absence of pain are the defining characteristics of a good life (1789/1948).

The most significant early twentieth century' development in the search for the good life came from Freud and his followers. Twentieth century behaviorists and cognitive psychologists also developed ways to enhance well-being, but they worked with ideas that had largely existed since the time of the ancient Greeks. The theory of the unconscious, although not completely new, did bring a new element into the search for well-being. Although there are a wide variety of ideas on how the unconscious affects behavior, most psychologists agree that at least some motivations for behavior are hidden from conscious awareness (Cramer 2000). Therefore, the search for happiness may be either helped or hindered by unconscious forces. Contemporary studies, however, have found that unconscious factors are often not as overwhelmingly significant as Freud imagined. Nevertheless, for some people their unconscious psychological forces may keep them from achieving as much happiness as they might (Vaillant, 2000).

The people in Western industrialized nations entered the twentieth century with a range of freedoms unprecedented in history. The ideals of freedom, democracy, and self-reliance allow people to choose their professions, spouses, religiousbeliefs, system of government, homes, and make other choices that are important to their pursuit of the good life. In fact, as citizens of democratic countries they expect to exercise those freedoms and make individual choices that affect their daily lives. When these choices are brought to bear on the question of the good life, or happiness, people today finds a veritable cornucopia of different philosophies, beliefs, theories, ideas, and pronouncements that all lay claim to the final authority'. …

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