Academic journal article Indian Journal of Positive Psychology

Effect of Yoga Program on Minimum Muscular Fitness of Orphan Adolescents by Using Kraus-Weber Test: A Randomized Wait-List Controlled Study

Academic journal article Indian Journal of Positive Psychology

Effect of Yoga Program on Minimum Muscular Fitness of Orphan Adolescents by Using Kraus-Weber Test: A Randomized Wait-List Controlled Study

Article excerpt

The prevalence of orphans was reported to be 143 million orphans worldwide (UNICEF, UNAED, & USAID, 2004) and 20 million in India (James & Rajan, 2008). Orphanage is the most common shelter for the orphaned and abandoned in many parts of the world (Zeanah, Smyke, & Settles, 2006), but unable to provide individualized nurturing found in loving and responsible households (Ahmad et al., 2005). Hence, it contributes a large extent to global developmental delay of the children they house (Giese & Dawes, 1999). According to a study by Smyke et al. (2007) found children raised in institutions demonstrated significant delays in poorer physical growth and cognitive development. The death of a parent is a profoundly stressful form of childhood adversity and it can be a cause for increasing the short and long-term risk of physical and mental health problems (Chrousos, 2009; Luecken, Linda, & Roubinov, 2012; Olney, 2009; Romero, Dickens, & Cyr, 2009). Another study showed that post-institutionalized children had motor system delays compared to the non-institutionalized children (Roeber, Tober, Bolt, & Poliak, 2012).

Physical fitness is often considered as a powerful marker of health in childhood and adolescence (Ortega, Ruiz, Castillo, & Sjöström, 2008). Muscle strength, a fundamental factor of physical fitness, is measured by the Kraus-Weber test (K-W test), a battery of six muscular strength tests (Kraus & Hirschland, 1954). Earlier studies have shown the test to be effective especially in pediatrics (Kulkami &Desai, 2010; Rawat, Rajesh, & Nagarathna, 2014).

Yoga is considered as a mind-body intervention that involves a combination of muscular activity and an internally directed mindful focus on awareness of the self, the breath, and energy (Collins, 1998), which is important for the promotion of physical health of the children in relation to their muscular fitness (Bhavanani, Udupa, Madanmohan, & Ravindra, 2011 ; Chen, Mao, Lai, Li, & Kuo, 2009; D'souza & Avadhany, 2014; McCall, 2007).

However, there has not been any documentation on the potential effects of yoga practice on minimum muscle fitness in orphans. This study hypothesized that three months of yoga intervention would improve participants' muscles fitness.



Eighty adolescents of both genders in an age range of 11-16 years from an orphanage (in a suburban area of Bengaluru, South India) volunteered to participate in the study. All were apparently healthy and active and proficient in carrying out their regular activities. Adolescents with a history of any major disability or illness were excluded from the study.

Consent and ethical clearance

The study protocol was approved by the Institutional Ethical Committee of S\YASA Yoga University, and followed the tenets of the declaration of Helsinki research ethics and reviewed by Institutional Review Board. Aprior inform consent from the head of the orphanage and a signed inform ascent was obtained from the participants after explaining in detail about the nature of the study. They were not provided with any incentives for their participation.

Research design

This was a randomized waitlist-controlled pre-post study. After the initial process of screening, participants were randomized by a statistician using a random number table from and were assigned into two groups: Yoga group (YG) and Wait list control (WLC) group. The YG underwent the yoga program for 3months whereas in the WLC group underwent their routine activities.

Masking and blinding

The trained research staffs were masked to participants' group assignment during data collection and the statistician concerned for randomization, and analysis was blinded to allocation to groups.


The test was performed in a spacious room during the morning hours between 9 to 11 am in both beginning and end of 12 weeks of the intervention. …

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