Academic journal article International Journal of Business and Information

Job Standardization and Organization-Based Self-Esteem in the Hospitality Industry: A Perspective of Socialization

Academic journal article International Journal of Business and Information

Job Standardization and Organization-Based Self-Esteem in the Hospitality Industry: A Perspective of Socialization

Article excerpt

1. INTRODUCTION

Because of the high employee turnover rate in the hospitality industry, hiring and retaining newcomers are important issues for practitioners across countries [Niu, 2010]. New employees entering an organization for the first time typically encounter uncertainties in the novel work surroundings [Allen, 2006]. Because these uncertainties can result in frustration, anxiety, and stress, the retention rate for first-year employees is low [Hsiung and Hsieh, 2003]. The problem is exacerbated by inadequate socialization tactics, which further increase the likelihood that a newcomer will quit [Allen, 2006].

To break the cycle, management researchers have addressed the importance of socialization for newcomers [Chao et al., 1994; Allen and Meyer, 1990; Bauer et al., 2007]. Adequate socialization is the cornerstone of desirable outcomes such as better adjustment, job satisfaction, and higher performance [Yang, 2009; Lee et al., 2011]. Desirable socialization outcomes indicate the effectiveness of socialization tactics or programs in which new hires learn related jargon and skills from other organization members, clarify their job roles, become immersed in organization norms and culture, obtain information about their social network, and decide whether they can connect to the workplace [Chao et al., 1994]. A meta study of socialization demonstrates that higher degrees of effective socialization lead to positive job attitudes such as affective commitment, expected work behaviors, and retention willingness [Bauer et al., 2007].

The literature on socialization has thrived for decades, mostly with fruitful results. Much of the literature has focused on the way that organizations cultivate employees by sharing culture and helping them understand and accept the nature of the organization [Cable, Gino, and Staats 2013] rather than focus on individual-centered interests. To the best of our knowledge, little is known about job-level variables that contribute to personal needs, such as the socio-emotional need arising from self-evaluation of one's significance, values, and special qualities.

This study aims to fill the research gap by using a socialization perspective to identify the relationship between job standardization and organization-based self-esteem. We choose this approach because self-evaluation of one's value in the workplace determines employee's motivation, attitude, and workplace behaviors [Pierce and Gardner, 2004]. Our empirical results may have managerial implications for hoteliers in their efforts to cultivate promising new employees.

2. THEORETICAL BASIS AND LITERATURE REVIEW

This section includes an overview and discussion of socialization theory, job standardization, and organization-based self-esteem.

2.1. Socialization Theory

Socialization theory was developed by Van Maanen [1978] and further elaborated by Van Maanen and Schein [1979]. The theory received a great deal of attention in the field of organizational behavior because it concerns successful adaption by an employee from the point of entrance to employment determinations during the employee's career [Mitus, 2006]. The application of socialization theory is especially critical in industries characterized by manpower mobility [Van Mannen and Schein, 1979]. Chao and his colleagues [1994] illustrated that socialization is a cognitive process within the individual who strives for a new or specific role in an organization. New hires attempt to make sense of multiple aspects of organizational life and role identities through social interactions [Hess, 1993]. During socialization, new workers learn what behaviors, perspectives, and values are appropriate and which ones are not [Van Mannen and Schein, 1979]. Socialization outcomes vary depending on individual differences, which will have an influence on the thinking processes of new employees as they interpret and impute meanings from their socialization experiences [Chao et al. …

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