Academic journal article Journal of the Indian Academy of Applied Psychology

Demographic Correlates of Poly-Victimization in Street Children of Lahore City

Academic journal article Journal of the Indian Academy of Applied Psychology

Demographic Correlates of Poly-Victimization in Street Children of Lahore City

Article excerpt

The expression "street children" was acquainted in 1980s with allude to the children who live or invest noteworthy measure of time in the city of urban territories to battle for themselves or their families through different occupations. This likewise means children who are insufficiently ensured, managed or looked after by mindful grown-ups. street children could be seen as a minor who seems, by all accounts, to be without sufficient assurance in the boulevards (Deb, 2006). United Nations (2010) reported that the estimate population of street children worldwide is 150 million.

Information on the geological appropriation of street children gauges a surmised number of 40 million street children in South America, 25 million in Asia, 10 million in Africa and approximately 25 million in Eastern and Western Europe. While the biggest concentration of road kids are accounted for in Latin and South America, South Asia is home to a percentage of the biggest quantities of street children on the planet (UNICEF, 2012).

The quantity of street children in Pakistan is evaluated to be between 1.2 million to 1.5 million. These street children wind up in the city because of numerous elements including, neediness, disregard, family issues, common fiascos and relocation, viciousness in homes and schools and absence of satisfactory business, training and social welfare frameworks (UNICEF, 2012).

A study on street children conducted by an organization showed that approximately 70% of the children from a total of 1575, living on the streets were between the ages 9 to 16 years. From this age range the highest number of street children was in the group of 11-16 years of age. The study indicated that most of the children on streets were Muslims. About 70% of street children were never enrolled in schools while the remaining 30% were educated up to middle school. The physical and mental health of street children was easily vulnerable to different types of mental and physical illnesses due to their direct or indirect exposure to unfavourable environmental conditions (UNICEF, 2012). Another study indicated that different circumstances cause the reason for children to leave their homes i.e. physical/sexual violence, poverty, death of parents, broken families etc. These children are mostly in the age range of 9 to 15 years. The street children get some common types of illnesses in Pakistan. Skin infections, Minjuries on different body parts, disabled organs, and malnutrition and an increased risk of HIV are common (Ali, Shahab, Ushijima, & Muynck, 2004). A private NGO conducted a research on the conditions of street children in Pakistan. A total of 1139 children with age range of 10-18 years were recruited as sample from 10 cities of Pakistan. The major proportion belonged to 13-15 years of age. About 73% were illiterate while 22.5% educated up to primary school and 1.2% was above primary levels. Primary reasons for leaving home were parental punishment, physical or sexual violence, parental fights, etc. The health status of street children showed that about 67.7% of the children complained of at least one type of illness in the current scenario. The most common problems were stomach upset (34%) internal and external infections (25%), fever (21%) and skin infections (14.5%). Some complaints of small intensity were also reported, which included headaches, flu, cough, generalized weakness, and unspecified aches (Towe, Zafar, & Sherman, 2009).

Child Poly-Victimization

Poly-victimization may take the form of child abuse and neglect, peer and sibling victimization, exposure to conventional crime, physical, sexual, emotional, psychological maltreatment or parental abuse, bully at home, school, communities over relatively brief time span (Finkelhor, Turner, Richard, & Hamby, 2011). Poly-victimization, which alludes to introduction to abnormal states and various manifestations of exploitation (e.g. physical abuse, sexual misuse, companion harassing, and neighborhood savagery), may have considerably more hurtful and less reversible impacts on exploited people (Finkelhor, Richard, & Heather, 2007). …

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