Academic journal article Modern Journal of Language Teaching Methods

A CROSS CULTURAL ANALYSIS OF NEWSPAPERS HEADLINES ON IRAN AND 5+1'S Geneva DEAL IN TERMS OF ATTITUDINAL FEATURES

Academic journal article Modern Journal of Language Teaching Methods

A CROSS CULTURAL ANALYSIS OF NEWSPAPERS HEADLINES ON IRAN AND 5+1'S Geneva DEAL IN TERMS OF ATTITUDINAL FEATURES

Article excerpt

1. Introduction

In Appraisal Framework which is presented by Martin and his colleagues, Attitude is concerned with value s through which individuals give judgments and associate emotional/affectual responses with participants and processes (White, 2001). The concepts of Attitude, Engagement and Graduation constitute the Appraisal Framework in language. Appraisal Framework is an approach for exploring, explaining and describing the way language is used for evaluation, adoption of stance, construction of textual persona and arrangement of interpersonal relationships and positions (White, 2005). In the current article, Attitude is a label which is applied to represent all the attitudinal meanings proposed in the Appraisal Framework, Attitude by itself is categorized into three sub-sectionss, which are termed as Affect, Judgment and Appreciation. Affect is about characterizing phenomena and events with regard to judgment, emotion, and evaluating human behavior towards the social norms and standards. The term Appreciation deals with evaluating objects and products and events, instead of human behavior, based on aesthetic standards, principles and other systems bearing social value (White, 2001). Therefore, it explores how addressers give judgments on addressee, their utterances, material objects, events, and related circumstances, and accordingly makes association with those who shar e these views and distance themselves from those who fail to do so. It examines how individuals' attitudes, judgments and emotive responses are explicitly displayed in texts and how they can be more indirectly implied, presupposed or assumed. Furthermore, it examines how representation of such attitudes and judgments can be carefully managed in order to take into consideration the ever-present probability of challenge or contradiction from those who hold contrasting views. In sum, Appraisal Framework is a system of interpersonal meanings. Addressers/ addressees use the resources of Appraisal to negotiate their social relationships, by stating their listeners/readers how they feel about things, people, and events, in other words, what attitudes they possess. It provides us an analytical tool to understand the issues related to evaluative language and to the negotiation of intersubjective positions. Evaluation can be studies by virtue of the system of evaluative lexis or phrases which appear to express speaker' s or writer's favorable or unfavorable, agreeable or disagreeable opinion. The pioneer of this approach in the study of evaluation is Martin. His own "overall system of choices for describing this area of meaning potential is called [appraisal]" (Editors"introduction to Martin, 2000, p.142). In studying appraisal the focus is on the lexical choices, but it does not necessarily convey the meaning that appraisal is a mechanical action, but rather "it receives full value not only as a central aspect of evaluation but also a fundamental part of the meaning negotiation that is at the heart of all communication" (Editors" introduction to Martin, 2000, p. 143). In the study of evaluation, the concept of appraisal has different dimensions; it includes three differe nt, yet related systems, which are the "resources for modalizing, amplifying, reacting emotionally (affect), judging (judgment) and evaluating aesthetically (appreciation)" (Martin, 1995, p.28). In brief, Martin's framework for the study of evaluation is t he collection of the three abovementioned resources under the title of appraisal. However, another model has been recently developed for the study of evaluation that contradicts Martin's Model, Bednarek's recent work confines the concept of evaluation, supposing that "affect should not be considered a "type" of evaluation" (Bednarek, 2006, p.20). She holds that "even though evaluation deals with expression of opinion, the term affect is greatly used to talk about the expression of emotions and feelings" (Bednarek, 2006, p. 19). There are two reasons which appear to dispute this suggestion. …

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