Academic journal article Modern Journal of Language Teaching Methods

The Effect of Self-Correction and Peer-Correction on Efl Learners' Writing Accuracy Improvement across Proficiency

Academic journal article Modern Journal of Language Teaching Methods

The Effect of Self-Correction and Peer-Correction on Efl Learners' Writing Accuracy Improvement across Proficiency

Article excerpt

1. Introduction

Since good writing entails the acquisition of various linguistic abilities, including grammatical accuracy, lexicon, syntax, and planning strategies like organization, style and rhetoric, writing instruction is especially important in foreign language classes. Writing is not only an individual act, but it is also a social and interactive process during which the writer attempts to express an idea (Aydin & Yildiz, 2014). According to Hyland (2003), teaching formal elements for the purpose of achieving grammatical accuracy and ensuring the students' use of those structures appropriately for various aims in different situations can be a difficult task for second language writing teachers.

Written error correction is viewed by writing teachers as an important element in improving L2 writing accuracy (Ferris & Roberts, 2001; Lee, 2004), but there is a lot of debate regarding its effectiveness (Truscott, 1996; Chandler, 2003). Giving feedback to learners' performance is on e of the most important responsibilities of a teacher. Schmidt (1990) states that noticing is a necessary element in second language (L2) acquisition and that acquisition happens when learners consciously notice linguistic features. However, most teachers state that all their efforts in marking student essays and giving feedback on grammatical accuracy, particularly when such feedback sometimes seems to be given scant regard by students is in vain (Riddiford, 2006).

Errors are not the result of not learning rather they are the outcome of natural development in language learning. So, in this process the teacher is a facilitator and does not always correct errors. S/he engages the students in the process of correcting errors. A teacher can provide feedback in different ways in class and one of them is teacher correction. In a traditional classroom, a teacher as well as students expects and wants the teacher to give feedback. Since the teacher is the only knowledgeable person who flows information to the students, s/he will decide whether students have learnt or not (Sultana, 2009).

However, self correction is closely linked to learner autonomy as well as the say, -Tell us, we forget; Show us we remember; Involve us, we learn." Self correction is the technique in which students are engaged to correct their own errors. -It can... foster the development of skills needed to regulate their own learning and it places more responsibility for learning on the students (Rief, 1990 as cited in Sultana, 2009)".

Social constructivist theory states that learning is a social activity (Vygotsky, 1978). A learner can develop knowledge when he/she socially interacts with others. Collaborative and peer feedback in second language (L2) writing have proven to be effective means of improving L2 learner's writing skill. They warrant attention because it is proposed that the collaborative dialogue that emerges in the writing process mediates language learning. Attending to talk generated during the co-construction and revision of a piece of writing has allowed some researchers not only to access the cognitive processes learners deploy (Lantof, 2000) but also to keep track of the impact of that talk on language learning as reflected in the students' writing (Swain, 2000).

Moreover, White and Caminero (1995) claim that learners can also benefit from the opportunities of learning from each other through peer feedback. Students learn to communicate effectively, accept different opinions, listen carefully, think critically, and participate efficiently.

In sum, communicative classroom activities allow some attention to form and also can provide opportunities for noticing linguistic features. How to increase student awareness of accuracy in writing is a concern of most teachers of English. Thus, the aim of this study is to investigate the effects of peer-correction and self-correction on the accuracy improvement of learners across two proficiency levels, namely, low-intermediate and high-intermediate. …

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