Academic journal article Psychology in Russia

From Physiological Psychology to Psychological Physiology: Postnonclassical Approach to Ethnocultural Phenomena

Academic journal article Psychology in Russia

From Physiological Psychology to Psychological Physiology: Postnonclassical Approach to Ethnocultural Phenomena

Article excerpt

Postnonclassical paradigm in brain science as a substrate of the psyche: Social neuroscience and social psychophysiology

In the 1850s physiological psychology became a key trend in the development of psychology as a true science; it was associated with the names of Wilhelm Wundt, Hermann von Helmholtz and Johannes Muller. This development is both historical and contemporary, in terms of the researchers who, following the logic of I.M. Sechenov, tried to reduce the mechanisms of mind functioning and development to its physiological mechanisms (in the broadest sense). An alternative position was expressed by L.S. Vygotsky (and others); this line of thinking was groundbreaking. In his diaries from the 1920s and 1930s, Vygotsky concisely formulated an analysis of cultural, psychological and physiological phenomena, from physiological psychology to psychological physiology. In various guises, this study of the relationship between cultural, psychological and physiological realities is expressed in the research of N.E. Vvedensky, A.A. Ukhtomsky and N. A. Bernshtein, E.N. Sokolov, P.K. Anohin, A.R. Luria and I.M. Feigenberg. The following ideas serve as postnonclassical and non-classical paradigms of the methodology of the XXI century: parabiosis by N.E. Vvedensky, functional organ and dominant by A.A. Ukhtomsky, the problem of forming the body by N.A. Bernstein, the neuronal stimulus model by E.N. Sokolov, concepts of the functional system by P.K. Anohin, the systematic localization of mental functions by A.R. Luria and probabilistic forecasting of brain activity by I.M. Feigenberg.

This article attempts to define the problem field of psychological physiology through the prism of non-classical and postnonclassical ideals of rationality (M.K. Mamardashvili, V.S. Stepin, MS Guseltseva). When examining problems with the relationship between the brain, mind and culture, the authors used nonclassical psychological physiology to defend the postulate of irreducibility of the laws of development of culture and mind to the physiological mechanisms of their implementation, as well as the methodological failure of any attempts to solve the Cartesian psychophysiological problem using different correlation techniques (even the most sophisticated) to bond the spaces in the Euclidean style instead of Riemannian or Lobachevskian styles. The development of modern science is characterized by a radical update of the conceptual framework. In addition to the "classic" and "non-classical" approach to solving fundamental and applied problems, there is an actively developing "postnonclassical" research paradigm (Mezzich, Zinchenko, Krasnov, Pervichko, Kulygina, 2013; Pervichko, Zinchenko, 2014; Zinchenko, Pervichko, 2012 a, b; Zinchenko, Pervichko, 2013). The introduction of the postnonclassical approach to science is accompanied by a reconsideration of not only the general scientific but also a concrete scientific methodology. The latter is expressed in the renewal of an ontological model of the research subject and, consequently, in the development of new experimental technologies and new scientific directions based on them.

Modern neurosciences and psychophysiology are not removed from the process of conceptual renovation. The rapid development of non-invasive imaging techniques in brain activity in the 1990s (e.g., functional magnetic resonance imaging, fMRI and positron emission tomography, PET) revealed to scientists new possibilities for studying the brain mechanisms underlying cognitive processes (perception, thinking, consciousness), social cognition and social behavior. Therefore, the last 10 years have resulted in a rapid formation of new interdisciplinary research areas at the intersection of neuroscience and social science (social psychology and behavioral economics in particular); these new research areas are called "social neuroscience" and "social psychophysiology" (Lieberman, 2007; Adolphs, 2009, 2010; Amodio, 2010). The process of "conceptual adjustment" led to the formation of new scientific communities and laboratories, (academic) periodicals and educational programs. …

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