Academic journal article Annals of Management Science

Examining the Relationship between Person-Organization Fit and Organizational Citizenship Behavior: The Case of an Educational Institution

Academic journal article Annals of Management Science

Examining the Relationship between Person-Organization Fit and Organizational Citizenship Behavior: The Case of an Educational Institution

Article excerpt

1. Introduction

In today's global and competitive world, rapid changes in markets require that organizations (both private and public) be competitive to the extent possible. On the basis of the assumption that the major or highest input cost in most organizations is personnel cost, any action that can be taken to decrease the cost will be helpful in achieving competitive advantage. Although downsizing and automation can decrease personnel costs, it must be noted that implementing such approaches will have its own related costs (Silverthorne, 2004).

Recent studies on business strategy have shown that competitive advantage can be achieved by any organization by recognizing or considering human resources as the most important strategic resource in the organization. In other words, human resources are a kind of intangible asset which can result in the establishment of values for the organization and enhance its ability to face the current turbulent environment (April & Huang, 2005). This emphasizes the fact that human resource strategies must be interwoven with the texture of the organization and must be used to support efforts to achieve the organization's purposes (Armstrong, 1993). The issue that should be seriously considered is that human capital will be lost if personnel are not well-trained or well-managed and well-directed.

Indeed, discussion on investment in human resources are referred to as the soft aspects of human resource viewpoints in organizations (Armstrong & and Baron, 2002). Thus recognizing the similarities and differences between human capital and physical capital can help considerably in understanding this issue. Human capital, unlike physical capital, is intangible; that is, its value cannot be evaluated at any given moment because its basics are on the basis of an element, which has a variable nature that cannot be evaluated, or predicted. For this reason, investing in the proper training and proper management of this important and strategic element must be done in order to achieve good organizational reputation and performance.

A good perception of an organization by its employees has a positive effect on their (the employees') metafunctions. It justifies the organization's effort in recruiting them and also decreases negative effect of work alienation in staff (Nadi & Alsafi, 2014).

This study aims to determine the relationship between person-organization fit and organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) in an academic or university environment. We will consider the University of Isfahan for the study. We consider the University of Isfahan for the study because of the good supports and co-operations that we hope to get from them and due to the fact that the administrative structure of the University of Isfahan is similar to that of any standard university anywhere in the world and to many other standard organizations.

2. Literature Review

2.1. Organizational Citizenship Behavior

The importance of organizational citizenship behaviour was highlighted in Organ (1988). Organ noted that OCB is very vital to the survival of an organization. He noted further that OCB can maximize the efficiency and productivity of both the employee and the organization. (See also Jahangir et al., (2004). Scholars such as Barnard (1938), Podsakoff et al. (2000), and Katz & Kahn (1978) have also expressed similar views. Bateman and Organ (1983) defined OCB as optional behaviors of employees that are not among their formal tasks and are not rewarded directly by a formal reward system within the organization but which increase the organization's total effectiveness (Khasawneh, 2011).

The purpose of OCB is to help both people and organizations. First, such behavior helps facilitate relationships among employees. This is important as employees are bound to help solve the problems of their colleagues. Second, the organizational citizen tries to help the organization achieve its purposes (Nouri & Doaee, 2009). …

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