Academic journal article The Town Planning Review

Beyond Financial Value Capturing? Interactions between Value Capturing and Cooperation at the Interface of Road Infrastructure and Land Use Planning

Academic journal article The Town Planning Review

Beyond Financial Value Capturing? Interactions between Value Capturing and Cooperation at the Interface of Road Infrastructure and Land Use Planning

Article excerpt

Introduction

In many countries, integrated planning approaches to road infrastructure works are increasingly applied, such as area-oriented planning (the Netherlands), 'Infrastruktur in der Landschaft' (Germany) or context-sensitive design (US). These approaches aim to deal with the tensions between functional interrelatedness of land uses and institutional fragmentation of responsible actors (governmental layers, public agencies and, increasingly, private actors such as landowners and developers as well; see also Spaans et al., 2011). Paying appropriate attention to interrelatedness at the infrastructure-land use interface potentially leads to synergies between road network development and regional or local land use improvements in an area. These synergies may enhance planning efficiency and overall area quality (Amekudzi and Meyer, 2006; Graham and Marvin, 2011; Kwakkel and Van Der Pas, 2011). From a financial perspective, integration efforts seem attractive as property value is expected to increase in areas where infrastructure investments are made, due to improved accessibility and area quality. Through value capturing (VC), these gains can be recouped and reinvested in public facilities, such as infrastructure (Alterman, 2012; Priemus, 2002; Samsura and Van der Krabben, 2012; VROM-Raad, 2004; RVW, 2004). VC can be understood as regaining increases in private property value that occur as the positive externalities of public investments. Examples of VC-mechanisms are taxation or obligations to invest in public facilities (Whatmore, 1994; Healey et al., 1995). The application of VC also fits a trend of decreasing central government funding for major infrastructure works. The extent to which the recouped funds may be expected to contribute to investments in major road infrastructure works is around ten to twenty per cent (Ruding, 2008; Samsura and Van der Krabben, 2011).

A precondition for the formulation and realisation of integrated projects is attention to institutional fragmentation of actors with responsibilities or roles in spatial planning (Baccarini, 1996; Turok, 2001; PBL, 2011; Verhees, 2013). Integration of interests requires open cooperation between actors representing interdependent interests. However, often these actors are strongly fragmented, e.g. across different spatial scales and with varying scopes of interest (Healey, 1998; Martens, 2007; De Jong and Spaans, 2009). A possible additional, but important effect of value capturing is improved control of planning and decision-making between these fragmented actors (Ruding, 2008). The application of VC hypothetically enhances cooperation between the fragmented actors at the interface of road infrastructure and other land uses (Rakers et al., 2010; Spaans et al., 2011). For example, more level planning arenas could be achieved by using captured values as a source of funding for overall spatial quality rather than for reinvestment in infrastructure,. This could be an incentive for viable cooperation between fragmented stakeholders (see e.g. Van der Veen et al., 2010; Spaans et al., 2011; Fischer and Amekudzi. 2011). Nevertheless, literature and practice lack a nuanced understanding of the exact relationship between cooperation among institutionally fragmented actors and VC.

In order to fill this gap, this article explores the hypothetical relationship between VC (three types) and cooperation among the fragmented actors that interact in integrated infrastructure-land use developments. More specifically, we provide an analysis of the interactions between public and private actors that form the basis for cooperation in three Dutch planning projects at the interface of major infrastructure works and other land uses, in which various value capture mechanisms were applied. The Dutch planning system has undergone several institutional changes over the past decade. One of these is a revision of planning legislation, including improved provisions in public and private law for capturing surplus development values (Dutch public law 'GREX'; DeWolff, 2007). …

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