Academic journal article Management : Journal of Contemporary Management Issues

International Market Orientation and Stakeholder Management in Institutions of Culture and Art in Croatia *

Academic journal article Management : Journal of Contemporary Management Issues

International Market Orientation and Stakeholder Management in Institutions of Culture and Art in Croatia *

Article excerpt

1. INTRODUCITION

In theoretical as well as practical sense, there is a notable lack of work on marketing management and market orientation in cultural and art sector in general, and particularly on international market orientation and stakeholder management. Due to the particularities of institutions of culture and art, one should ask the question whether marketing concept is an adequate philosophy in these institutions. The mission and goals of institutions of culture and art differ from the goals of profit organizations but also differ from other non-profit organizations. Therefore, a special and adapted marketing approach within institutions of culture and art is essential. Marketing, whose standard concept is not applicable in these situations, is often neglected in such institutions whereas it ought to be quite the opposite. Taking account of the specifics of various institutions of culture and art, an adapted concept would alleviate the achievement of positive performance for managers of these institutions, and the satisfaction of culture and art customers, artists and other target groups.

2. THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK FOR MARKET ORIENTATION AND STAKEHOLDER THEORY IN INSTITUTIONS OF CULTURE AND ART

2.1. Characteristics of marketing in institutions of culture and art

This study addresses a lack of research into market orientation in institutions of culture and art. It aims to fill the gap with an empirical study into the international context and new demands of the activities of such institutions. Marketing theory entered the field of culture and art at the end of the 70s and the beginning of the 80s of the last century and its initiation is considered to have been the expression of a desire for the democratization of culture (Courvoisier and Courvoisier, 2007: 192) because the attraction to marketing in that early period arose from the marketing potential to attract a public and it was used to argue for increased accessibility for the public to culture and art. A detailed look into the circumstances which took place in the field of culture and art, specifically in museums and galleries can be found in Tobelem (1998), who attempted to identify the factors which stimulated the development of marketing in cultural institutions: (1) the growth of the culture and art sector; (2) the increasing need for financial resources; (3) the increase of competition both within the sector, as well as among different sectors; (4) the need to get to know their visitors better.

Recognizing marketing in culture and art as a business philosophy, according to Lee (2005), just accentuated the problem of the fundamental theoretical incompatibility of marketing concepts and a romantic view of the nature of artistic production and a belief that the role of the artist is superior to that of the user of cultural-artistic products. The specificities of cultural and artistic products are not necessarily in contradiction to marketing concepts but they manifest their own limitations for marketing. New marketing theory in the field of culture and art increasingly posits the demand for equal attention for the treatment of artists, artistic work and consumption, in other words, the client (Fillis, 2010). For many the orientation dilemma, which at one time was posited by Andreasen (1985) in the nonprofit sector, is still realized in the difference between selling orientation and marketing approach; it focused on users and it posits the question of how to protect the autonomy of producers and the value of cultural-artistic work while at the same time positing how to allow marketing in culture and art to become real marketing. Marketing in the field of culture and art is defined by Hill, O'Sullivan and O'Sullivan (2003: 1) as "an integrated management process which sees mutually satisfying exchange relationships with customers as the route to achieving organizational and artistic objectives." Therefore, an integrated approach means a need to harmonize all the activities of an organization around the customer. …

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