Academic journal article Pakistan Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology

Emotional Intelligence, Anxiety and Procrastination in Intermediate Science Students

Academic journal article Pakistan Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology

Emotional Intelligence, Anxiety and Procrastination in Intermediate Science Students

Article excerpt

College and university life is filled with excitement and fun for the students but along with that, the students have to face the pressure of assignments, projects, term papers as well as meeting deadlines. Most of the students put off until tomorrow what can be done today, leading to a common phenomenon known as procrastination. Procrastination is the lack or absence of selfregulated performance and the behavioral tendency to delay what is necessary to reach a goal. As the work load increases in the final year and greater level of effort is required from the students, they feel pressured. Some students cope with this pressure by acting wisely and managing their tasks timely, whereas some students fail to maintain a timed schedule. They fail in making choices related to their academic work. The present study aimed to investigate the relationship of emotional intelligence and procrastination, specifically passive procrastination with anxiety in intermediate science students.

According to Ferrari, Johnson and McCown (1995) the term procrastination directly comes from the Latin verb procrastinate, meaning to put off or delay until another day. Harriott and Ferrari (as cited in Morales, 2007) have found procrastination to be a phenomenon prevalent in the general population, constantly affecting a substantial portion of adults as well as university students.

Academic procrastination involves the delaying of academic tasks due to some reason. Solomon and Rothblum (1984) have described academic procrastination as holding up primary academic tasks such as preparation for exams, completion of term papers, administrative responsibilities related to school and duty of attendance.

Ferrari (2000) classified procrastinators into three types, based on the reason they delay things: a) arousal types get thrilled when they become successful in beating a deadline.

They find it challenging and exciting, b) avoiders put off things as a result of low self-efficacy which is an attempt to reduce anxiety, c) decisional procrastinators lack the ability to make a decision within a specific period of time. Chu and Choi (2005) divided procrastination into active and passive procrastination. Active procrastinators are capable of managing their tasks in a timely manner. However, they suspend their actions on purpose and concentrate on other important tasks at hand. Passive procrastinators are procrastinators in the typical sense. Cognitively, passive procrastinators do not intend to procrastinate, but they often end up delaying tasks because they are incapable of making decisions and thereby acting on them quickly.

Factors of procrastination may be situational or personal. The cause of procrastination has been a major concern for many theorists. Among the situational factors, the work load of assignments and improper time management by the students has been considered important causes of academic procrastination (Sultan & Hussain, 2010). Research studies have revealed that personal dispositional factors associated with fear of failure, such as depression and anxiety often lead to procrastination (Chang, 2014; Milgram & Toubiana, 1999; Senecal, Koestner, & Vallerand, 1995). A significant relationship has also been observed between academic procrastination and anxiety (Bilal, 2009; Farran, 2004; Glick, Millstein, &Orsillo, 2014; Milgram &Toubiana, 1999). Individuals procrastinate on the tasks that they find anxiety provoking and as a result they delay the tasks. Anxiety is a psychophysiological phenomenon experienced as a foretold fear or threat to human being whether the threat is generated by internal, real or imagined danger (Emilien, Durlach, Lepóla & Dinan, 2002). Akinsola, Telia, and Telia (as cited in Olubusayo, 2010) also suggested that students resist completing the assignments and deadlines that create tension and anxiety. They prefer delaying such tasks, resulting in procrastination. This can be explained in the light of the AppraisalAnxiety-Avoidance (AAA) model presented by Lazarus and Folkman (1984). …

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