Academic journal article Pakistan Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology

Translation and Adaptation of Simplifying Mental Illness Plus Life Enhancement Skills (SMILES) Program

Academic journal article Pakistan Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology

Translation and Adaptation of Simplifying Mental Illness Plus Life Enhancement Skills (SMILES) Program

Article excerpt

Parents are main pillars of a family system (Doherty, 2000). When the parents are mentally ill the whole system may collapse. One of the common parental mental illness is depression, which have severe and long-term effects on a child's growth. Patel et al. (2007) recognized four mental health problems (viz., schizophrenia, depression, alcohol abuse, and developmental disabilities) for which adults and children are more at risk. The effects of parental depression are not only restricted to infancy, but it also has its consequences in toddler hood, preschool age and school age kids. Children of depressed parents are at risk for developmental and behavioral difficulties and also at risk for developing depressive disorders. Some parents may have extra possibility to experience depression and recurrence of depression (Kessler et al., 2005).

Families having a depressed parent may lead to disruption in parenting (Hammen & Brennan, 2001). Parental depression has been linked with emotional and behavioral disturbances both in community and in clinical populations, among children and adolescents (National Research Council [NRC] & Institute of Medicine [IOM], 2009). The research work documenting the impact is somewhat consistent-parental depression has been negatively connected with a variety of results among children from early life to teenage years (Goodman & Gotlib, 2002; Jaser et al., 2005). Substantial number of studies indicated that offspring are at increased hazard for internalizing and externalizing difficulties due to parental depression (England & Sim, 2009; Goodman et al., 2011). Depressed parents are involved in disruptive parenting and it leads to traumatic communication between parents and offspring (Howard & Medway, 2004; Brennan, LeBrocque, & Hammen, 2003). Depressed parents are more prone to display withdrawn actions and disturbing behaviors than parents who are not depressed (Jaser et al., 2008). Further, indicators of internalizing and externalizing behaviors in children and adolescents are robustly linked with withdrawn and intrusive parenting behaviors (Jaser et al., 2005). A research by Goodman et al. (2011) established that internalizing, externalizing, common psychopathology; negative emotions and less positive behavior in children and adolescents are associated with mother's depression.

Parental mental health problems and its interaction with adverse outcomes for children have been well argued in western studies (Rutter, 1996; Gopfert, Webster, & Seeman, 1996). Interventions aimed at preventing or reducing behavioral problems is necessary in childhood and early adolescence (Ybrandt, 2008; Copeland, Shanahan, & Costello, 2009). Available resources are very few in number for the treatment of children's psychological problems. These resources are not distributed equally and relevant services are inefficient and incompetent. These are the major obstacles to better mental health services for children, especially in under-developed countries like Pakistan. People with economic insufficiency are in extreme need of mental health care, but they have inadequate access to it, especially children and adolescents with mental disorder cannot approach these resources (Saxana, Throcroft, Knapp, & Whiteford, 2007). Lancet group of Global mental health (2007) identified the lack of resources and treatment plans for mental disorders in under developed and developed states. Coplan (2013) has given a behavior management plan for internalizing behavior of children. It includes staff education, student education, deep breathing, mental imagery, isometric exercises, fidget toys, direct interventions, school intervention, family management, play activities, and cognitive behavioral therapy.

In Australia, Children of Parents with a Mental Illness (COPMI) organized such effort to develop the intervention plan. The goal of COPMI is to present information about the parents with mental illness to those family members who look after and work with them across Australia. …

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