Academic journal article International Journal of Clinical and Health Psychology

Validation of the Portuguese Version of the Personal Outcomes Scale

Academic journal article International Journal of Clinical and Health Psychology

Validation of the Portuguese Version of the Personal Outcomes Scale

Article excerpt

The examination of the construct of quality of life (QOL) has been a consistent topic in the literature over the past three decades. The concept has been used as a key desired outcome in education or rehabilitation and has been a guide about personal values (Schalock, Bonham, & Verdugo, 2008). QOL has been the basis of an increasing amount of research focused on understanding the underlying concept of QOL in the field of intellectual disability (ID; Claes, Van Hove, Van Loon, Vandevelde, & Schalock, 2010). QOL is ''a multidimensional phenomenon composed of core domains influenced by personal characteristics and environmental factors. These core domains are the same for all people, although they may vary individually in relative value and importance'' (Schalock, Keith, Verdugo, & Gómez, 2010, p. 21). The concept is progressively being used as a sensitizing notion, social construct, and overarching theme for planning, delivering, and evaluating personalized supports (Claes, Van Hove, Vandevelde, Van Loon, & Schalock, 2012; Schalock, Verdugo, & Gómez, 2011; Van Loon et al., 2013). The QOL framework aims to meet challenges and overcome barriers that people with ID have been facing, as well as to improve public policies or service practices to address their needs and choices.

In the field of ID, different QOL frameworks have been reported in the literature and ''there is usually no indication that the component parts have some form of hierarchical structure or causal sequence'' (Cummins, 2005, p. 701). Each approach has an impact on the QOL assessment and many tools have been developed for this purpose (e.g., Van Loon, Van Hove, Schalock, & Claes, 2009; Verdugo, Arias, Gómez, & Schalock, 2010; Verdugo, Gómez, Arias, Navas, & Schalock, 2014). Whereas there is a consensus that QOL is a multidimensional concept, no common conceptualization has been accepted about the number of the core domains and indicators (Simões, Santos, & Claes, 2015a).

Our research is based on Schalock and Verdugo's (2002) conceptual framework, because this construct of QOL is one of the most cited, used, and has further provided a pivotal impact on research or practice related to people with ID (Gómez, Verdugo, Arias, & Arias, 2011). According to Schalock and Verdugo (2002), the concept of QOL: (a) is multidimensional, (b) has objective and subjective indicators, (c) has etic (universal) and emic (culture-bound) properties, and (d) is influenced by personal and environmental characteristics. The authors also suggested that QOL is composed by eight core domains, including: personal development, self-determination, interpersonal relations, social inclusion, rights, emotional well-being, physical well-being, and material well-being. The domains (i.e., latent variables) and respective indicators (i.e., observed variables) determine the construct of QOL, yet domains and indicators' importance vary upon individual preferences or desires (Claes et al., 2010; Schalock et al., 2008; Schalock & Verdugo, 2002). There has been consistent verification and validation of this multidimensional model of QOL (e.g., Carbó-Carreté, Guàrdia-Olmos, & Giné, 2015; Gómez et al., 2011; Jenaro et al., 2005; Schalock et al., 2005; Wang, Schalock, Verdugo, & Jenaro, 2010).

The analysis of the factor structure or hierarchical nature remains a critical element of the QOL construct (Gómez et al., 2011; Wang et al., 2010). It seems to be enough evidence of the eight core QOL domains, but there are few studies about the factor structure validation (Gómez et al., 2011). Furthermore, although only one first-order structure (i.e., multidimensional model) exists, there are two potential hierarchical factor structures (i.e., Salamanca versus Schalock). Both solutions have three slightly different second-order constructs. The Salamanca model (Jenaro et al., 2005) consists of personal well-being (i.e., emotional well-being, interpersonal relations, self-determination, and personal development), physical and material well-being, and empowerment (i. …

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