Academic journal article European Journal of Social & Behavioural Sciences, The

Adaptation and Validation of Aricak's Professional Self-Esteem Scale for Use in the Pakistani Context

Academic journal article European Journal of Social & Behavioural Sciences, The

Adaptation and Validation of Aricak's Professional Self-Esteem Scale for Use in the Pakistani Context

Article excerpt

1. Introduction

Teaching and learning is a very complex phenomenon mediated by a host of factors related to students, family, teachers and school environment. A review of literature reveals that teachers constitute an important variable impacting student learning and achievement in all subject areas, but more particularly in science and mathematics (Iqbal, Fariha & Tayyab, 2015; Pell & Iqbal, 2015; Iqbal, Pell & Shafiq-ur-Rheman, 2013). One of the characteristics of teachers having a great bearing upon students' learning is their professional self-esteem. A literature search also reveals that the concept has been discussed at two levels: self-esteem in general (White, 1963; Rosenburg, 1965; Higgins, 1983) and professional self-esteem with reference to the particular profession of the individuals (Super, 1969; Brock, 1999).

Bandura (1995) defines the concept of self-esteem as "the belief in one's capabilities to organize and execute the courses of action required in managing prospective situations" (p.2). Branden (1969) defined self-esteem in terms of feeling competent to cope with the challenges of life and of being worthy of happiness, which was modified by the National Association for Self- Esteem as "The experience of being capable of meeting life's challenges and being worthy of happiness" (Reasoner, 2015). These definitions clearly demonstrate that academicians or psychologists do not agree on a single definition of self-esteem. However, a review of literature reveals that experts do agree on some common elements of self-esteem which include cognition, behaviour, attitude, competence, worth, and evaluation. This means that in addition to being linked to one's emotions, self-esteem is also related to one's cognition which enables a person to judge his/her self-worth and develop an attitude towards the self accordingly (Rosenberg 1965).

Professional self-esteem is related to the value and worth an individual attaches to his/her chosen career. Tinsley (2002) describes the same concept stating that "Professional self-esteem is an individual's self-esteem specifically in regard to his or her professional position and acceptance in that professional role (p.16)". Referring to the professional self-esteem of teachers, Young (1997) opines that professional self-esteem of teachers refers to the manner in which they perceive their teaching efficacy, teacher-student relationship and commitment to teaching. Brock (1999), on the other hand provides another view regarding teaching and the role self-esteem plays in enabling a teacher to carry out his responsibilities effectively. Common attributes of the teaching profession include understanding students' academic needs and employing all possible measures to fulfil those keeping in view their interests and weaknesses and helping them to realise their maximum potential. In other words, the real virtue of the teaching profession lies in providing students with suitable learning opportunities and an environment conducive to the development of their innate capacities. Only with sound cognitive abilities and high self-esteem, can teachers perform such a challenging job. It goes without saying that all these character attributes are essential elements of professional self-esteem.

In recognition of the fact that teachers constitute an important factor in implementing successful learning, reshaping individuals lives and developing cognitive abilities of their students, the interest of the academic community to investigate this aspect has increased over the last few years, focusing in particular on the professional self-esteem of teachers.

This article is part of the study that was actually conducted to measure professional selfesteem of teachers in Pakistan and to see what demographic factors affect the development of this important psychological construct. Various instruments are available for measuring general selfesteem (Metcalfe, 1997) and professional self-esteem of teachers and teacher educators (Tinsley, 2002; Bholan, 2013). …

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