Academic journal article Journal of Physical Education and Sport

Associated Factors between the State of Anxiety and a Specific Gymnastics Skill with Environmental Variations

Academic journal article Journal of Physical Education and Sport

Associated Factors between the State of Anxiety and a Specific Gymnastics Skill with Environmental Variations

Article excerpt

Introduction

The specific skills involved in Gymnastics are performed in different devices, namely, there is variation in environment where the task will be performed (Sands, et al., 2011). An example is the ground and the lock, where the need for these skills transfer from one environment to the other. For such a transfer occurs, the athlete must feel prepared and safe to perform a move in which the environment requires a higher degree of your domain. Thus, it is important to consider the personal characteristics, the competitive environment and the specific tasks involved in your sport (Medeiros Filho, Pinto &Carvalho, 2007). Therefore, it is the responsibility of teachers and technicians assess the stage of development to guide the athlete to proceed with this transfer of skill.

The athletes provide opportunities, risks and consequences background to the competition, which often give rise to fears and fears and can manifest as physical, cognitive, emotional or motor. Regardless of the sport, the athlete lives constantly in situations that will cause anxiety, by exposure to comments, criticism from fans, family members and even by his own coach(Vieira, Teixeira& Vieira, 2011).

Anxiety is an emotion triggered by stressors; stress, in turn is the consequence of the internal and external conditions and their proportions (Vieira, Teixeira& Vieira, 2011). The stress is often a negative emotional experience, accompanied by biochemical changes, physiological, cognitive and behavioural predictable, which aim to change the stressor event or accommodate their effects (Taylor & Stanton, 2007). Moderate levels of stress can improve performance, because, there is incentive to keep the athlete in surveillance, but an excess of stimulus can distract you from your goal (Kavanagh, 2005). Hernandez & Gomes (2002), claim that there is a relationship between anxiety and performance, which vary according to several factors, such as the type of sport, difficulty of the task, the athlete's personality trait, environment and fans.

The competitive anxiety is a, tendency to realize the competition is a threatening situation and answer her with feelings apprehensive and tense. Even so, the level of anxiety related to performance in sport is considered normal and healthy. However, the extreme anxiety in athletes can be harmful. The levels of stress and anxiety in competitive sports are reported more frequently during sports participation in young athletes (from 13 to 24 years) than in any common activity or daily work (Patel, Omar & Terry, 2010; Weinberg & Gould, 2014). In this context, the objective of the present study was to analyse and associate the anxiety state with the execution of a specific skill of Gymnastics, held in different environments.

Methodology

Sample

The sample of the study consisted of 11 athletes (11.64 ± 1.91 years age) practitioners of Gymnastics, female, representatives from the city of Bauru (Sao Paulo State, Brazil), in sporting competitions.

Procedures

Initially, the research project was submitted to the National Research Ethics Committee (CONEP) and approved in accordance with the procedure in Process n. 154604601011. Preceding data collection was requested permission to research development to the coach of the team as well as the legal guardian for the participant training center, and presented the goals and methodology to be employed during the study.

In contact with the participants, these were informed about the conditions for joining in the search. Then, an informed consent was delivered to the responsible, with the aim of clarifying the conditions for participation of young athletes in the survey. The condition of participation in the research was the return of informed consent, duly signed by the person responsible. The athletes, who met the criteria for participation in research, were then assessed individually "in loco".

Instrumentation and task

As inclusion criteria for the study an analysis of the variation of movement pattern was conducted by two referees in gymnastics at the Secretariat of Sports, Leisure and Youth of São Paulo State (Brazil). …

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