Academic journal article Journal of Physical Education and Sport

How Does the Motivational Climate Differ among Adult Dancers within an Educational Context?

Academic journal article Journal of Physical Education and Sport

How Does the Motivational Climate Differ among Adult Dancers within an Educational Context?

Article excerpt


The 50's constitute a crucial decade for the Greek society as it is during this period that its transformation ends. This process of transformation began in 1832 with the constitution of the Modern Greek sovereign state (Tsaousis, 1991; Dimas, 1999) and ended with the end of the civil war, which led Greek society to the industrial era. The immigration within and outside the country, which resulted in the urbanization of the rural population and the industrialization of the production means, are the main factors that contributed to the formerly mentioned transformation.

The consequences of this transformation are the departure from the traditional way of life (Meraklis, 1986), the change in people's behavior and culture and the adoption of a new way of life. From the 1960's we observe changes in the dance practice of the Greeks caused by the gradual expansion of dance teaching in schools and dance clubs. The creation of the departments of physical education and sport was an important change for the study of physical education (Antoniou, Apostolakis, Anastasiaddes & Karipidis, 2009; Bebetsos & Goulimaris, 2015; Delidou, Matsouka & Nikolaidis, 2015; Matsouka, Harahousou, Kabitsis & Trigonis, 2003; Matsouka, Kabitsis, Harahousou & Trigonis, 2003) and dance. The departments provide students with the possibility of specialization in Greek dances. Thus it became possible to study and research dance from many different scientific approaches (Alygizakis, 2005; Bebetsos & Goulimaris, 2014; Goulimaris, 2015; Goulimaris, Koutsouba & Giosos, 2008; Goulimaris, Mavridis, Genti & Rokka, 2014; Lykesas, 2002; Serbezis, 1995; Tyrovola, 1994; Yfantidou, Costa & Michalopoulos, 2008; Filippou et al., 2014; Zografou, 1989).

Teaching Greek dance at schools and dance clubs resulted in a different kind of dancing, taught in the halls of dance clubs, a folk-like kind of dance according to Zografou (2003), which gradually replaced Greek dance not only in the everyday practice of modern Greeks but in their conscience as well. We have entered the era of "the culture of folk clubs" (Serbezis, 1999).

In the past few years we have observed a massive turnout of middle aged and older people in the halls of dance clubs with the ultimate aim of participating in Greek dance lessons (Filippou, Kipourou, Goulimaris & Genti, 2009; Filippou, 2002). What are, however, the reasons for attending dance club lessons? What are the goals of adults and their increasingly growing participation in Greek dance lessons?

Theoretical Framework

One of the factors contributing to the creation of the atmosphere that will enhance interaction in teaching is motivation (Salvaras, 2000). When, during class, intrinsic motivation prevails, then the lesson becomes cooperative and its aim is learning. Students feel autonomous, their level of participation in class is high and they are happy to acquire new skills. It is the process of learning as such that motivates students to participate in the class (Trilianos, 2009). In contrast, when external motivation prevails, the class becomes competitive and the primary goal is to perform well. The participants, in this case, aim at a high mark, reward and praise. Their motivation does not stem from the activity per se but from the underlying influence of some social reinforcement (Koliadis, 1997).

A factor significantly affecting motivation, intrinsic motivation that is, of individuals is the sense of merit of the individuals themselves. This term refers to the assessment the individuals make of the level of their ability, i.e. how capable they feel they are (Koliadis, 1997). This is even more true when the ability is of increased difficulty and simultaneously challenging enough to lead students to the sought for development (Vygotsky, 1988).

The extent and the intensity of the effort somebody is going to make, as well as their performance immediately depend on their assessment and evaluation of their achievement and, additionally, on how they look upon the consequences of their participation (expectancy of achievement). …

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