Academic journal article Journal of Applied Management and Entrepreneurship

A New Look at Transformational Leadership and Organizational Identification: A Mediation Effect of Followership Style in a Non-Western Context

Academic journal article Journal of Applied Management and Entrepreneurship

A New Look at Transformational Leadership and Organizational Identification: A Mediation Effect of Followership Style in a Non-Western Context

Article excerpt

THE FOLLOWER-LEADER RELATIONSHIP DOES NOT operate in a vacuum (Bjugstad et al., 2006). Since followers and leaders are linked together in interrelated roles and are dependent on each other, the importance of followers cannot be underestimated (Yukl, 2002). While organizations continue to devote time and money to the development of leadership, followership is what enables leadership to succeed (Oyetunji, 2013). The integrated model of followership and leadership styles can be applied and matched to fit different organizational cultures and goals (Kark et al., 2003). Organizations may tend to have certain predominant leaders and/or follower types and so organizations have to be able to fit the two types together (Yukl, 1989, 1998).

In today's global market, companies must recognize that success or failure is a result of both leaders' and followers' roles (Bennis, 2010; Hollander & Offermann, 1990; Kelley, 1992; Oyetunji, 2013). Leadership and followership co-exist; there can be no leaders if there are no followers (Hollander, 1992; Kelley, 2008). Numerous developments in the study of leadership have made evident the practical significance of follower perceptions of the leader-follower relationship (Hollander & Kelly, 1990; Hollander, & Webb, 1955). Followers are as important as leaders, yet in management and organizational behavior literature, the focus is largely on the concept of leadership, while follower behavior is often ignored (Blanchard et al., 2009; Ekundayo et al., 2010; Hollander, 1964).

This present study contributes to the literature by raising three questions. First, "What are the different complements of transformational leadership behaviors that exert their influence on followers in this research context, the UAE?" The second question we focus on is, "What are the possible effects of these different behaviors on followers' styles in this research context, the UAE?" The third is, "What are the effects of such leadership behaviors and followership styles on organizational outcomes like organizational identification in this research context, the UAE?" To this end, the current study develops and tests a theoretical model (see Fig. 1) to explore individual-focused and group-focused transformational leadership behaviors, as well as followers' style and their impact on organizational identification.

A comprehensive revision of the literature of the different variables of the study is first presented. Second, I present the research model and hypotheses development. The research methodology is discussed later. Last, the research results, the implications and a future research agenda are described.

Theory and literature

Transformational leadership

Transformational leadership is one of the most prevalent approaches to understanding individual, group and organizational effectiveness (Bass, 1997). Transformational leadership is a multifaceted construct (Podsakoff & MacKenzie, 1994; Podsakoff et al., 1990, 1996; Yukl, 1989). It displays certain types of behavior that imply that the motivational basis of transformational leadership is a process of changing the way followers envision themselves (see Lord & Brown, 2004; Shamir et al., 1993) either as unique persons with distinctive needs or as passionate members of a social group whose obligations align with the obligations of the group (Tajfel & Turner, 1986).

Individual-focused transformational leadership behaviors

Individual-focused leadership suggests that effective leaders vary their behavior on the basis of followers' individual differences (e.g. abilities and their behavioral styles) (Podsakoff et al., 1990; Rafferty & Griffin, 2004; Wu et al., 2010). Two components of transformational leadership behaviors-individualized consideration and intellectual stimulation-focus on individuals' needs, capabilities and affective states, rather than on their collective interests (Kark et al., 2003; Wu et al. …

Search by... Author
Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

Oops!

An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.