Academic journal article Journal of Psychosocial Research

Employee's Work Stress: Review and Presenting a Comprehensive Model

Academic journal article Journal of Psychosocial Research

Employee's Work Stress: Review and Presenting a Comprehensive Model

Article excerpt

INTRODUCTION

Generally the demands on our daily life are increasing and changing day by day due to globalization and industrialization. In such a competitive environment, human life is not going on a straight way. It runs on a zigzag life-line. If a person feels good today, it is not necessary to be happy tomorrow also. Various problems are used to come before every individual day by day. In searching of better solutions, facing these small and big problems, and making adjustment with current situations and environment, a person feels stress more or less. Modern society sets a rapid, hectic pace of living. People often have too many demands placed on their time, are worried about uncertain futures and have little time for family and fun. The concept of stress has become very general in public in these days. People talk about being stressed out, how this or that situation is stressful. Stress affects us at home, work, and even on holidays. It is also listened often that everyone should learn to "deal" or "cope" with stress in our life. It is a feeling of strain and pressure. Stress is a concept describing the response by a person to stressors in the environment. It starts when a person thinks that one cannot cope with the situation. Symptoms may include a sense of being overwhelmed, feelings of anxiety, overall irritability, insecurity, nervousness, social withdrawal, loss of appetite, depression, panic attacks, exhaustion, high or low blood pressure, skin eruptions or rashes, insomnia, lack of sexual desire, migraine, gastrointestinal difficulties, etc. Stress, particularly work-related stress, has aroused growing interest in recent years. The workplace has changed dramatically due to globalization of the economy, use of new information and communications technology, growing diversity in the workplace e.g. more women, older and higher educated people, as well as increased migration. Work stress is a serious health and safety hazard that can have devastating effects. Stress can lead to psychosocial illnesses, such as anxiety and depression. Stress can also contribute directly to physical illness; for example, tense muscles can worsen ergonomic injuries. Stress makes workers more susceptible to hazards, injury and disease.

Work stress

Work stress is a stress involving over work load. Stress is defined in terms of its physical and physiological effects on a person, and can be a mental, physical or emotional strain. It can also be a tension or a situation or factor that can cause stress. Work pressure occurs when there is a discrepancy between the demands of the environment/workplace and an individual's ability to carry out and complete these demands. Often a stressor can lead the body to have a physiological reaction which can strain a person physically as well as mentally. Work stress is defined as the harmful physical and emotional responses that occur when job requirements do not match the worker's capabilities, resources, and needs (National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health 1999). It is recognized world-wide as a major challenge to individual mental and physical health, and organizational health (ILO 1986). Stressed workers are also more likely to be unhealthy, poorly motivated, less productive and less safe at work. And their organizations are less likely to succeed in a competitive market. By some estimates work-related stress costs the national economy a staggering amount in sick pay, lost productivity, health care and litigation costs (Palmer et al. 2004).

Work-related stress is a pattern of reactions that occurs when workers are presented with work demands that are not matched to their knowledge, skills or abilities, and which challenge their ability to cope. These demands may be related to time pressure or the amount of work (quantitative demands), or may refer to the difficulty of the work (cognitive demands) or the empathy required (emotional demands), or even to the inability to show one's emotions at work. …

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