Academic journal article The Indonesian Journal of Geography

Spatial Zonation Model of Local Irrigation System Sustainability (A Case of Subak System in Bali)

Academic journal article The Indonesian Journal of Geography

Spatial Zonation Model of Local Irrigation System Sustainability (A Case of Subak System in Bali)

Article excerpt

1. Introduction

Culture-based agriculture and tourism development is the basic potential that becomes the mainstay of Bali development. The cultural uniqueness in Balinese agricultural system is practiced by the traditional institution called subak. This means that sustainable development of Bali will be materialized if subak (agriculture) and tourism develop through a relational system that is mutually beneficial and interdependent. Tourism has to strengthen subak existence through absorption of agricultural produce and opening of agribusiness opportunity based on local culture and community. On the other hand, subak has to be capable of playing a role as a supplier, both of food products, unique agricultural souvenirs and tourist attractions.

In reality, rapid and accelerative developing tourism will threaten subak existence. Susanto (1999) and Alit Artha w.,, (2005) state that although Bali tourism development positively contributes to an increase in income of the people and job opportunity, on the other hand, it brings about a serious negative effect, namely a threat to subak system sustainability. Central Bureau of Statistics of Bali Province (2012) notes that in 2008 the contribution of agricultural sector in Badung Regency (one of the regencies in Bali with the highest economic growth) was 8.41%, then it dropped to 6.29% in 2012. While in the same years, tourism sector contributed 37.92% and 34.26% respectively. A study by Lorenzen (2010) notes that manpower in agricultural sector dropped drastically from 61% in 1976 to 36% in 2008. While in the same years industrial sector manpower (including tourism) increased from 12% to 24%. Sutawan (2005) and Windia (2008) state that almost all subaks in Bali are experiencing a marginalization process that ends up with unsustainability. A foreign scholar named Lansing (Sinar Harapan, 2013) has studied subak since 1974 and also sees that currently subaks in Bali are in the verge of destruction because of its popularity.

The form of threat to subak sustainability is also present in the disturbance to the Tri Hita Karana (THK) components that is the philosophy or guidance for subak life. The THK teaching in subak stresses on the importance of a harmonious life and solidarity to achieve welfare among its members. The THK teaching consists of three components that have to be made harmonious: parhyangan (relationship between human being and God), pawongan (directing the relationship among a human being and other human beings) and palemahan (directing the relationship between human beings and the nature). The THK component that is seriously threatened is palemahan component, in its massive forms are exemplified by land conversion and scare irrigation water, and pawongan component as exemplified by the change of occupation from farmers to jobs in tourism industry and the fading away of collective life (mutual cooperation and subak meeting).

This study was aimed at developing a spatial zonation model of subak system sustainability that is based on subak internal and external dimensions. The internal dimension was focused on the implementation of subak THK philosophy, while the external dimension was analyzed from the variables of tourism and urban development, namely urbanization (population density), road network, the proportion of nonfarmer population, social economic facilities available in the subak area. The zonation model resulted is expected to become one of the spatial solutions to determine subak areas that can and cannot be developed into sites of industries (urban and tourism development), at the same time as a "win-win " solution to materialize a mutual synergy between agriculture (subak) and tourism (urban development).

The sustainable development concept has a wide variety of meanings, such as seen in the formulation put forward by WCED (1987 in Lee, 1999; Cai, et. Al, 2001), that is a development that guarantees the current needs of the people without reducing the rights of the coming generations in meeting their life necessities. …

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