Academic journal article The Indonesian Journal of Geography

Geographic Information System-Based Spatial Analysis of Agricultural Land Suitability in Yogyakarta

Academic journal article The Indonesian Journal of Geography

Geographic Information System-Based Spatial Analysis of Agricultural Land Suitability in Yogyakarta

Article excerpt

1. Introduction

Agricultural sector is largest employment providers. Most people whose main works are in agricultural sector are still traditional and domestic in scale in terms of land management. Family farms are not economically able to support viable well-being on par with other sectors in the free-trade atmosphere. Besides, the selection of agricultural commodities is also crucial to the success of the production and productivity of the agricultural sector, which will directly affect the level of farmers' income. Supportive government policies towards improving the welfare of farmers is needed, especially in the provision of agricultural inputs such as fertilizers, pesticides, seeds, irrigation system, and other agricultural inputs. Moreover, the distribution system and the determination of market price after harvest also need to be considered in order not to harm the farmers. To support this, it is necessary to assess physical as well as financial and economic viability which are the indicators of comparative and competitive advantage of agricultural sector in base areas of Yogyakarta Special Region. The results would allow more optimal development of agricultural sector, especially to strengthen people economy in rural areas. The objectives of this research were as follows:

1. To classify land characteristics and land quality in Yogyakarta Special Region.

2. To make spatial analysis of land suitability for agriculture, especially food crops (rice, corn, and peanuts) in Yogyakarta Special Region.

The main determinant of economic growth in a region directly relates to demands for goods and services outside that region. The growth of industries that use local resources, including labor and raw materials for export, will generate local assets and lead to (job creation). This means that export demand will establish economic linkages both backward (industrial sector) and forward (sector services) that will generate profits in the production of goods and services that have potential resources and have competitive advantage against other regions.

Seed sector is a sector that has a good prospect and can be developed to improve district/city economy or sector which wins the competition with other sectors as indicated by the contribution of each sector to the GDP at constant price in a region (Arsyad, 1999). Advanced analysis of seed sector is necessary to determine pattern of regional development policies. The existence of the leading sectors in a particular region have implications on the support of abundant human resource, so that the region has high comparative advantage in a particular sector. Looking at seed sector as export commodity of other areas would allow to see linkage pattern between regions and development potentials of each region.

The agricultural sector is a sector which is favored in most regions in Indonesia. This condition indicates the need for attention to the development of people, especially in rural areas. Such attention may be given by providing capital investment, both social and economic, improving agricultural productivity, establising mutually beneficial relationships between people, and generating local institutions that can empower all parties involved in productivity improvement (Sisparyadi, 2003). In the long run, agricultural sector is expected to increase to enable improvement in the economic welfare of rural people (Anonymous, 2004). Five criteria should be met to enable agricultural sector to become the dominant sector in the economy of a region. The five criteria are (1) contributive criteria: direct contribution to the national goals achievement, i e. the most effective in lowering poor population; (2) articulate criteria: is the ability to push the growth of other economic sectors of through synergistic linkages between industries; (3) promotive criteria: the ability to create an environment conducive to growth and development of other economic sectors; (4) progressive criteria: the ability to sustainably grow at a high enough rate, and (5) toughness criteria: the capacity to endure in the face of any shocks caused either by economic, social or political turmoil. …

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