Academic journal article The Indonesian Journal of Geography

Land Use Planning for Brackish Water Shrimp Ponds in the North Coast of Tuban, Indonesia

Academic journal article The Indonesian Journal of Geography

Land Use Planning for Brackish Water Shrimp Ponds in the North Coast of Tuban, Indonesia

Article excerpt

1. Introduction

Indonesia is the largest archipelago in the world (AsianInfo.org, 2015) with as many as 13,466 islands (Indonesian Geospatial Information Agency, 2014) and a coastal length of 99,093 km (National Geographic Indonesia, 2015), thus placing it as an archipelago country with the second longest coast in the world after Canada (Cicin-Sain and Knecht, 1998). These facts reflect the vast coastal areas which can support many kinds of land utilization. Coastal areas are multifunctional, as they have a high biodiversity and are part of the mainland with high economic growth (Ambarwulan, 2010). This area is the most populous part of the mainland, with various life activities (Miller et al., 2005; Xu et al., 2009). Coastal areas have become associated with food, aquaculture, tourism, mining, industry, residential, ports, tourism, and other economic activities and services (Xu et al., 2009; Ambarwulan, 2010). High demand of land for such various uses in the coastal region requires optimal plans for land utilization.

Aquaculture such as in brackish water ponds is one of the potential land utilizations in coastal areas. With such a long coast, the potential of Indonesia to develop the brackish water ponds is high. The inventory of the Ministry of Marine and Fisheries (2012) indicates that the potential for brackish water aquaculture ponds in Indonesian coastal areas comprises an area of 1.3 million ha, with developments that continue to grow. The increasing land utilization for ponds in recent years is reflected by an increase of brackish water shrimp production. The production of tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon), white shrimp (Penaeus indicus), Vanamei shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) and others in Indonesia in 2004 amounted to 238,567 tons; in 2013, the production had increased to 590,258 tons, an increase of 247% (Directorate General of Aquaculture, 2014). Indonesian shrimp farming experienced a very strong period of development in the 1980s (Grahadyarini, 2009; Widiatmaka et al., 2014a). After experiencing a dark period in the 1990s because of the disease in black tiger shrimp resulting in the destruction of ponds, the situation was recovered through wide utilization of Vanamei shrimp (Grahadyarini, 2009; Widiatmaka et al., 2014a).

Shrimp has long attracted attention due to its value as a food supply and its high economic potential (FAO, 2010). Shrimp pond in Indonesia is cultured by aquaculture fisheries to meet the need for food fish. This is not only the case for Indonesia, but also globally. The world per capita supply of food fish from aquaculture has increased from 0.7 kg in 1970 (Herbeck et al., 2013) to 17.9 kg in 2008, and to 19.2 kg in 2012 (FAO, 2014). Increasing pond development has been triggered by several important factors. Globally, fisheries contribute to 17% of human animal-derived protein intake and more than 50% in many countries (FAO, 2014). Food from the aquatic environment has a specific role in providing the long-chain omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), which are important for optimal brain and neural system development in children (FAO, 2014).

Aware of this potential, the Indonesian government in 2012 set the north coast of Java island as a location for shrimp pond revitalization (Indonesian Government Portal, 2015; Widiatmaka et al., 2014a) because the area is considered to have potentially favorable conditions for pond development. The coast has flat beaches, formed by the alluvial plains that facilitate aquaculture.

The north coast of Tuban in East Java Province is part of the north coast of Java potential area. This region has long been used for shrimp pond culture, and currently, brackish water shrimp ponds are growing and continue to attract many investors. According to the statistics (Indonesian Statistic, 2014), shrimp pond development on the north coast of Tuban has been fast. Production from shrimp farms in 2013 was 4,432 tons, higher than the production from inland water fish culture, at 1,953 tons. …

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