Academic journal article Journal of New Approaches in Educational Research

Leadership Behaviors and Its Relation with Principals' Management Experience

Academic journal article Journal of New Approaches in Educational Research

Leadership Behaviors and Its Relation with Principals' Management Experience

Article excerpt

1 INTRODUCTION

The word of leadership is more like the words freedom, love, and peace. Although each person intuitively knows the meaning of each of these words, any of these words can have different definitions for different people. Once everyone starts to define leadership, he/she immediately realizes that there are many definitions of leadership. In the last fifty years, more than sixty-five different systematic classifications have been provided to define the criteria of leadership (Fleishmann, Mumford, Zaccaro, Levin, Korotkin, & Hein, 1991). In a definition with emphasis on the relationships between people, leadership is defined as influencing the subordinates through communicating with them in order to achieve organizational goals (Alvani, 1993). Knowing the great roles of technology today, educational leaders are challenged to find which leadership practices effectively influence teachers to improve their instructional techniques and to continue their professional development and growth, in addition to focusing their attention, and the attention of the entire school community, on student learning (Jabor, Sale, Deba, Musta'mal, & Sadiq, 2013).

Previous studies conducted on leadership behaviors have obtained various results. Alaei (2010) compared the importance of leadership and managerial behaviors from the perspective of teachers and principals of schools in Zahedan. The results showed that teachers and principals value leadership and managerial behaviors equally. However, among the components of leadership, principals believed that modeling is more important than managerial behaviors. Both teachers and principals stated that managerial behaviors outweigh challenging and female principals considered more value for managerial and leadership behaviors than men. Goudarzi (1996) stated that there is no significant difference between principals from public and private schools in terms of effectiveness of leadership behaviors and also there is no significant relationship between academic qualifications of principals and efficiency of their leadership behaviors.

Findings by Naeemollah and Hafiz (2010) showed that female managers exhibit show managerial behaviors better than men. Pingle and Cox (2007) stated that, from the perspective of teachers, principals displaying higher levels of leadership behaviors are more successful. Carr (1988) found that male and female principals of public high schools have different views on leadership behaviors (including mutual trust, mutual respect, friendship, and cordiality between themselves and employees under their supervision). Different demographic parameters such as age, education, and work experience have a significant impact on attitudes of principals towards leadership. Manning (2004) showed that female principals pay more attention to the activities of teachers and understand their expectations better than male principals. Umbach (1993) found a significant difference between views of faculty members about leadership behaviors of male and female principals. Results by Long (1991) suggested that empowering others is the most important leadership strategy in order to achieve the best personal performance, and other priorities, in order of preference, include inspiring a shared vision, modeling, reassuring, and challenging.

Robinson (1996) studied the views of teachers on leadership behaviors of principals of primary schools and found a significant relationship between effectiveness of leadership behaviors of principals and their age, gender, and ethnicity. Findings of Berumen (1992) indicated that empowerment and reassuring behaviors are less used by principals. Ayman and Chemers (1983) used a Leadership Behavior Description Questionnaire to study 142 employees in nine sections of a large industrial company in Iran in order to assess the generalizability of their leadership behaviors to the samples obtained in studies conducted in Europe and the US. The results of their study showed that Iranian employees believe that a good manager is one who is benevolent and treats the employees like a father. …

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