Academic journal article International Journal of Education and Management Studies

Predictors of Perceived Stress among University Students

Academic journal article International Journal of Education and Management Studies

Predictors of Perceived Stress among University Students

Article excerpt

Stress has become an important subject in academic contain as well as in our culture. Many researchers in the field of behavioral science have carried out extensive research on stress and its consequences and concluded that the subject needed more concentrations (Rees & Redfem, 2000; Ellison, 2004; Ongori & Agolla, 2008). Nonetheless, University students suffer from different kind of academic stressors during their education experiences. The idea of this research came by observing the researcher and its interaction with the students during the teaching learning process; also by the record unit in the college counseling; and the number of students who are looking for help; to draw the attention of officials to the university and help them control of the stress factors for students, Which also helps in developing the preferable methods to enable students to cope with this stressor during the period of their studies. University students are at a high risk for increased stress. Demanding academic pressure and limited social and personal time can add to the normal stress of life and begin to have a negative effect on a person Moreover, universities did not take clear steps to learn and face serious psychological stress for students during the period they spend of their studies. Stress is a common element in the lives of every individual, regardless of race or cultural background (Garret, 2001). Over the past few decades, there has been significant investigation on the issues of stress and management of stress (Dziegielwski, Tumage, & Roest-Marti, 2004). In addition, college students have been shown to possess a unique set of stressors which can affect their daily experiences (Garret, 2001). Stress has been defined by Campbell (2006) as the adverse reaction people have to excessive pressure or other types of demands placed on them. Stress occurs when an individual is confronted by a situation that they perceive as overwhelming and cannot cope up with. Academic stress among students have long been researched on, and researchers have identified stressors as too many assignments, competition with other students, failures, lack of pocket money (Fairbrother & Warn, 2003), poor relationships with other students or lecturers, family or problems at home. Institutional (university) level stressors are overcrowded lecture halls (Ongori, 2007; Awino & Agolla, 2008) semester system, and inadequate resources to perform academic work.

Stress is a negative emotional state occurring in response to events that are perceived as taxing or exceeding a person's resources or ability to cope. Stress has multi-dimensional effects in terms of emotion, physiology, cognitive ability and behavior. The significant effects on each dimension are as follows (Kring, Johnson, Davidson, & Neale, 2012):

* TtmoitonaZ: feeling ofanxiety and depression,

* /Wpsio/ogfcaZ: dire vascular system, expansion of air lungs, increased heart rate, constriction of blood vessel,

* Cognitive ejects: poor concentration, reduced capacity of Long Term Memory,

* üeÄoviora/ ejects.' insomnia, asthenia, reduced work performance, social deviance.

Distress and strain have been used to describe these reactions but stress is still used by many to refer to the negative emotional response. Stress is often considered as the process between person and environment. Stress is a process in which "environmental demands tax or exceed the adaptive capacity of an organism, resulting in psychological and biological changes that may place a person at risk for disease" (Cohen, Kessler, & Gordon, 1995).

A study was conducted by Towbes and Cohen (1996) based on College Chronic Life Stress Survey to examine the frequency of chronic stress in the lives of college students. The scale contained item that are generally seen as the stressors are interpersonal conflicts, self-esteem problems and money problems. The evaluation of the stressors was done on the basis of the relation between these and the students on each week. …

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