Academic journal article The Journal of Developing Areas

Determinants of the Effectiveness of Celebrity Endorsement in Advertisement

Academic journal article The Journal of Developing Areas

Determinants of the Effectiveness of Celebrity Endorsement in Advertisement

Article excerpt

INTRODUCTION

Celebrities are people who enjoy public recognition by a large share of a certain group of people (Christina, 2003). Using a celebrity in advertising is more likely to positively affect consumers' brand attitudes and purchase intention(Schlecht, 2003).Celebrities also have an ability to transfer their image to a specific product that is being advertised(Wheeler, 2003). Many companies realized the importance of using celebrity endorsement as a marketing communication tool in improvingthe financial returns for companies (Erdogan, Baker, & Tagg, 2001).However, finding a right endorser is quite a daunting task as they may or may not benefit the company. Some researchers argue that it is useless for companyto employendorser based on their celebrity sourcecredibility. As they are inconsistencies in the past studies, this study aims to investigate the suitability ofdifferent type of endorser.

Apart from this, the endorser's nationalityis often thought to be influencing the effectiveness of celebrity endorsement advertisement. Some international companies such as Louis Vuittonand DKNYbelieve that it is better to hire well-known international celebrities such as artists and model as endorsers for advertising purpose. However, the concern of using well-known international celebrities arerecently raised as different country may have different culture. Some brand marketers argue that different endorser should be used. For example, Nike will choose their local sport stars such as Michael Jordan as endorsers in America but in Asia countries, they will use Asian sport stars like Nakata Hidetoshi.

Celebrity endorser/product fit also affects the effectiveness of celebrity endorsement advertisement. For reference, NBA star Yao Ming first appeared on a China telecommunication company, China Unicom's CDMA mobile phone advertisements as endorser, some doubted that Yao Ming who is staying in United States really uses the mentioned mobile before? Can his sporty and fresh image help shape a good brand image for CDMA? Of course, China Unicom only takes Yao Ming's fame into consideration and did not analyze the fit of Yao Ming's endorsement for CDMA mobile phone.The internal link between brand and brand endorser is determined by brand element. The elements of a brand decide which kind of endorser should be invited, if they do not match, there will be greater damage on the brand.

Although, many previous studies are done in other countries, not many recent studies are available, especially in Malaysia.In view of this, the main objective of this paper is to examine the effect of "celebrity source credibility", "celebrity endorser nationality" and "celebrity endorser/product fit" on the effectiveness of "celebrity endorsement advertisement". The organization of the paper is as follows. Section 2 describes the literature review in the paper. Section 3 explains the framework, hypotheses and the methodology employed by this research. While Section 4 measures the effects of "celebrity source credibility", "celebrity endorser's nationality" and "celebrity endorser/product fit" on the effectiveness of celebrity endorsement advertisement, Section 5 concludes the study.

LITERATURE REVIEW

Amos, Holmes and Strutton (2015)have discovered a positive relationship between expertise, trustworthiness, attractive with celebrity endorsement advertisement effectiveness. They obtain a correlation of expertise .38 (p < 0.05), trustworthiness .46 (p < 0.05), and attractiveness .38 (p < 0.05) between Celebrity Source Credibility (Ohanian, 1990) and celebrity endorsement effectiveness. In the same vein, Jain, Roy, Kumar, and Kabra (2010) finda positive relationship between expertise, trustworthiness, attractive and celebrity endorsement advertisement effectiveness. The study reveals a correlation of trustworthiness .79 (p < 0.05) and attractiveness .86 (p < 0.05) between Celebrity Source Credibility (Ohanian, 1990) and celebrity endorsement effectiveness. …

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