Academic journal article Social Behavior and Personality: an international journal

Leisure Participation, Job Stress, and Life Satisfaction: Moderation Analysis of Two Models

Academic journal article Social Behavior and Personality: an international journal

Leisure Participation, Job Stress, and Life Satisfaction: Moderation Analysis of Two Models

Article excerpt

Life satisfaction has been a popular research topic in social sciences. Individuals with greater life satisfaction feel better psychologically about their lives than other people do (Erdogan, Bauer, Truxillo, & Mansfield, 2012). However, most people earn their living by working hard. Job stress and unemployment could both have a negative effect on life satisfaction. (Lucas, Clark, Georgellis, & Diener, 2004). Life satisfaction is defined as an overall assessment of feelings and attitudes about one's life at a particular point in time, consisting of desire to change one's life, satisfaction with the past, satisfaction with the future, and significant others' views of one's life (Diener, 1984; Diener, Suh, Lucas, & Smith, 1999; Ye, Yu, & Li, 2012). Job stress is "the response people may have when presented with work demands and pressures that are not matched to their knowledge and abilities and which challenge their ability to cope" (World Health Organization, 2015). In a study of teachers in the United Kingdom, the researchers suggested that teachers working under poor conditions tend to report lower levels of psychological well-being than others do (Griva & Joekes, 2003). Empirical evidence also shows that stress and job burnout are significantly related (Hayes & Weathington, 2007). Perceived job stress has also been shown to exert a negative impact on life satisfaction (Erdogan et al., 2012). Consequently, it can be hypothesized that job stress will be negatively correlated with life satisfaction.

Leisure participation may be one coping strategy for job stress (Trenberth, Dewe, & Walkey, 1999). Leisure participation is defined as the number of times an individual engages in leisure activities during a period of time (Ragheb & Griffith, 1982). In a study conducted with a Swedish population, findings revealed that a low level of leisure participation was related to overtime work and job strain (Wemme & Rosvall, 2005). As a result, these researchers reported that it followed that individuals who engaged in a lot of recreational activities revealed less job stress compared with the group who had a low level of participation.

Findings reported in literature suggest that the contribution of leisure participation to subjective well-being, or life satisfaction, is inconclusive (Kelly, Steinkamp, & Kelly, 1987). In a study to investigate the relationships among leisure participation, life satisfaction, and leisure satisfaction, Ragheb and Griffith (1982) found that leisure satisfaction mediated the relationship between leisure participation and life satisfaction. More specifically, leisure participation predicted life satisfaction through leisure satisfaction. However, on the basis of empirical evidence, Neal, Sirgy, and Uysal (1999) pointed out that individuals' overall life satisfaction can be predicted by the leisure in their daily life. Additionally, in a recent study, Newman, Tay, and Diener (2014) pointed out that leisure participation leads to enhanced subjective well-being through a series of psychological mechanisms.

On the basis of the preceding review of literature, I framed the research question and proposed the hypotheses to be tested in the current study (see Figure 1).

Research Question 1: Which of the two models proposed (A vs. B) for the relationship of leisure participation, job stress, and life satisfaction fits the data better?

Hypothesis 1: Leisure participation will negatively predict job stress.

Hypothesis 2: Job stress will negatively predict life satisfaction.

Teachers working at both high schools and colleges may have opportunities to take on administration duties. In addition to their teaching workload, teachers have to allocate extra time resources to deal with this administrative work. This implies that the workload increases when teachers fulfil different work roles. There is evidence to suggest that role conflict is a strong predictor for work-related stress and well-being (Van Bogaert et al. …

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