Academic journal article Iranian Journal of Public Health

A Model for Diagnosing Breast Cancerous Tissue from Thermal Images Using Active Contour and Lyapunov Exponent

Academic journal article Iranian Journal of Public Health

A Model for Diagnosing Breast Cancerous Tissue from Thermal Images Using Active Contour and Lyapunov Exponent

Article excerpt

(ProQuest: ... denotes formulae omitted.)

Introduction

Breast disease is one of the major issues in women's health today. Early detection of breast cancer is important in reducing mortality rates. Early detection and eradication of malignant tumors at an early stage before metastasize and spread to neighboring areas, can be prevented from threats and problems later. During 2003-2007, the median age of death from breast cancer has been 68 yr. Almost 0.0%, 0.9%, 6.0%, 15.0%, 20.8%, 19.7%, 22.6% and 15.1% of mortality has occurred in the following order, 20 yr, 20-34, 35-44, 45-54, 55-64, 65-74, 75-84 and above 85 yr(1). Report submitted shows that 0% detection has been possible in those under the age of 20. While 1.9%, 10.2%, 22.6%, 24.4%, 19.7%, 15.5% and 5.6% of diagnosis has been possible in the inside groups ranging , 34-44, 45-54, 55-64, 65-74, 75-84 and above 85 yr (1). Early detection can lead to 85 percent chance of survival (2).

Early detection of breast cancer is one of the most important issues that researchers have always sought. Pathological mechanism of breast cancer is formed in this manner while cancerous cells produce nitric oxide (no) in the proliferative phase (proliferative). The chemicals cause difficulties in neural control, and thus lead to regional artery dilatation in the early stages of cancer cells growth. This angiogenesis causes increment in the local temperature even a few years earlier than tumor formation. Deep lesions can cause changes in skin temperature (3, 4). Based on the features listed above, this concept means that, some features used in the diagnosis of breast cancer, entail geometric size, location, shape, topology as well as the thermal features.

Because, doctors are interested in the thermal imaging after a long time, which comprise the following: 1) progress done in the technology of infrared cameras; 2) creation of standard rules for thermal imaging; 3) accurate calibration of the camera. Breast Thermography is a potential technique with useful protocol (5), which has advantages such as noninvasive, non-radiation, passive, quick, painless, inexpensive, and non-contact camera (6-11). Breast Thermography is suitable for women of all ages, including pregnant and nursing women and women with dense tissue in their breast (12). Thermography is the measurement of published heat from different parts of the human body. Infrared imaging is a noninvasive method adopted as a diagnostic tool (13). Thermogram of a patient provides the distribution of heat in the body. Due to the high metabolic rate and progression of vascular angiogenesis, the cancer cells have a higher temperature than the normal cells around them. Thus, cancer cells in infrared images can be indicated in the form of critical focus. Thermography is better than the method of mammography in predicting breast cancer in its early stages, even when the tumor is at the initial stage of formation. Medical Thermography has become a tool for early warning. Thermal imaging has been used for diagnosis of breast cancer. The effect of early detection is not within the scope of this paper. Techniques and image processing algorithms are the problems of medical applications.

One of concerns related to algorithms choice is sensitivity and accuracy. Medical thermography could not progress for a long time because of the dependency on hardware and software fields and limitations concerning existing. Recently hardware limitations have declined with the improvements made in the field of photo detectors and PCs. Limitation of software decreased with the progress made in the analysis of algorithms. All the items listed, indicate the success related to the use of thermal images in medicine (5). Recently, case studies have been implemented on breast cancer detection in large-scale by thermal imaging, mostly indicate average sensitivity and specificity of 90% (7). Parametric analysis is not solved in abnormal areas that are hot and cold points. …

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