Academic journal article The Journal of Educational Research

Gender Mainstreaming Strategies at University

Academic journal article The Journal of Educational Research

Gender Mainstreaming Strategies at University

Article excerpt

Introduction

Universities over the world being high seat of learning are deemed more responsible for promoting their innate nobility among men and women for their honour. Therefore, equality, fair treatment for all, and social justice are central considerations of all universities. These requirements have a significant impact on the beauty and attraction of a university; it is now a phenomenon of global scope that men and women have assumed an important position in the university. Gender mainstreaming is very crucial (Stevens & Lamoen, 2001) in every organisation in general and university in particular. Gender biased situation may prevail in any culture, any organisation, and any university. Social standards, official structure, situational and dispositional factors as well as erratic thoughts about group members' attribute are one of the most important factors that are responsible for gender biased situation. Some studies revealed that women have still under-representative place in academic staff, especially in the position of management (Tahiraj, 2010; Hoyt, 2012) including technologically advanced countries; since it is very complicated to have an open dialogue on fair opportunity, authority and discrimination (Henze, Lucas & Scott, 1998).

Different studies exposed that gender identifies a moot fact (Eveline, Bacchi, 2005; Rees 2005). Now gender segregation is dominated in higher education. Jacobs (1996) found three aspects: entrance, experience and outcome are separate in educational inequalities, because they are distinct to each other. Various researchers like (Walby, 1997; Lindsey, 2011) studied that in government or non-government world of work, women suffered because of the characteristics of their occupations. According to them, in the world of work gender segregation existed in its peak if compared to the period during their academic life.

Many strategies have intended to cope with gender unfairness. Sandler and Rao (2012) determined that work on gender related issues helps to reduce improper environment of both male and female. Gender mainstreaming is a method to progress that seems more broadly at the dealings between women and men in their "access to and control over resources", decision making, remuneration and rewards in culture (Masilungan, 2001). Gender mainstreaming is a recent progress in feminist procedure with the intention of regulating policies for gender fairness. It is basically to tackle with "mainstream' along with "gender equality'. There are numerous diverse kinds of gender mainstreaming as there are various perceptions as well as theories of gender equality. The social and political systems also set up directions to this objective. Gender mainstreaming in particular demands women in the legislative body, the progress of the particular gender arrangement in administration, as well as gender proficiency in social civilization from universities to workers' organizations (Walby, 2005).

Gender mainstreaming as defined by the Council of Europe is given in the following words. "Gender mainstreaming is the (re) organization, improvement, development and evaluation of policy processes, so that a gender equality perspective is incorporated in all policies at all levels and at all stages, by the players normally involved in policy-making" (Blickhäuser & Bargen, 2007, p.1). Gender mainstreaming as defined by the United Nations is "the process of assessing the implications for women and men of any planned action, including legislation, policies or programmes, in all areas and at all levels. It is a strategy for making women's as well as men's concerns and experiences an integral dimension of the design, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of policies and programmes in all political, economic and societal spheres so that women and men benefit equally and inequality is not perpetuated" (Habib, 2008, p. 12).

It is very unfortunate that there is no proper implementation of gender mainstreaming policies (Moser & Moser, 2005). …

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