Academic journal article The Journal of Educational Research

Gender Representation and Participation at University

Academic journal article The Journal of Educational Research

Gender Representation and Participation at University

Article excerpt

Introduction

The main characteristic of humans and democracy is that every person is born free and identical in nobility and privileges (United Nations, 1949). Currently there are two types of societies, one is elite or developed communities and other are under developing nations. Gender biased situation may prevail in any culture, any organisation, or in any institution. Social standards, official structure, situational and dispositional factors as well as anti-social thoughts about group members' attribute can be one of the important factors that are responsible for gender biased situation. Some studies revealed that women have still under-representative in academic staff, especially on managerial level (Tahiraj, 2010; Hoyt, 2012) including technologically advanced countries. Due to cultural norm and restriction it is very sensitive to have an open dialogue on fair chance, authority and on gender bias (Henze, Lucas, & Scott, 1998) and there is a dearth of literature on gender participation in university perspective. Certain studies exposed that gender identifies a arguable fact (Eveline, Bacchi, 2005; Rees 2005). Jacobs (1996) found three aspects: entrance, experience and outcome are separate in educational inequalities, because they are distinct to each other. Beddoes and Pawley (2013) also focused on how female faculty themselves conceptualize or seem sensible of marginalization in Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM).

While the progress towards the world's women, it is required to construct related indication along with gender-disaggregated information (UNESCO, 2005). Participation is a broader idea that depends on circumstances. In a nut shell, in different situations, diverse affairs have done by different people (The World Bank, 1996). Participation can take different forms, ranging from information sharing and consultation methods, to mechanisms for collaboration and empowerment that give stakeholders more influence and control (The World Bank, 1998). Participation is a procedure through which stakeholder persuades and shares control over progressive plan, decisions and capitals which changes them (The World Bank, 1994).

Participation is a procedure by which members of a community or institution contributes in decisions and all the actions that are connected to and that decide their roles and progress. So it is noted that when all the people of an organization actively participate /involve (represent) in all the stages that will be characterized as development in an institution. But there is no sharing of future decisions with their colleagues in higher education (Brooks, 2003). Participation is a compound and tough method to refining the existence of people; improper participation is an obstruction to attainment of objectives.

The words ?Participation' and ?Gender' encompass to convert into an element of advance conversation and performance since two decades. Supporter of these perceptions has asserted that they give permission for the indication of the most unrepresentative clusters (Akerkar, 2001).

Parcheta, Kaifi, and Khanfar (2013) concluded that women are represented approximately equivalent to men in workforce. Lower and middle level management for both the gender are also represented nearly equal. Channar, Abbassi and Ujan (2011) discovered less gender disparity is faced by females in private sector. Adding further, Bilkis, Habib and Sharmin (2010) found similar incidence of less inequality encountered by females in the public workplace. However, Sharma (2012) documented that gender inequalities may be occurring in the workplace. Because in the workplace, effort plays a major factor in determining authority and position for both sex.

Contrary to what was described in preceding paragraph Bilkis, Habib and Sharmin (2010) established that female assumed that they were in marginalized group in public sector. They also explained that around the world (developed and developing countries) gender inequality was being faced at every work place. …

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