Academic journal article The Journal of Educational Research

A Critical Review of the Evolution of Higher Education in Pakistan

Academic journal article The Journal of Educational Research

A Critical Review of the Evolution of Higher Education in Pakistan

Article excerpt

Introduction

Higher education plays significant role in the development of a country. Higher education system is directly responsible for providing the required man power needed by the nation for its development. Higher education civilizes man for the betterment and welfare of humanity with the man's higher creative developments. The strength of a nation is built on human resources developed by the system of higher education. It is also a source of immense potential for the socio-economic and cultural development of the country. This world of rapid communication and digital revolution has inspired our youth to pursue excellence in all fields to cope with the challenges of changing society. It is the only higher education which enables young ones to meet the challenges in their practical life and make them strongly adaptable to a changing society.

The World Bank Report on -Higher education in Developing Countries: Peril and Promise" (2000) indicated that issues of relevance, quality, and lifelong learning and internationalization are suitable options which need the urgent attention of planners. Relevance of higher education to the needs and expectations of the society, striving for socio-economic development brings the role of the universities an important factor. In this regard the issues of equal access and opportunities to all groups of society; finding solution to pressing problems and links to the world of work are very relevant.

The Task Force on the Improvement of higher Education in Pakistan: Challenges and Opportunities (2000) stated that product of our secondary and intermediate education system is poorly prepared for the rigors and demands of higher education, and also ill equipped for employment and career development. The Task force also laid emphasis on practice of students for development of critical and moral reasoning, effective communication, self-directed life-long learning, and such enrichment of curriculum which will encourage good citizenship, adaptability, and innovation, facilitating the continuous renewal of economic and social structures relevant to a fast-changing world.

Ever since Pakistan came into being, the Governments have taken steps in order to bring the higher education at such level which can play a crucial role for the amelioration of society. During the last sixty years of Pakistan's existence, the Government of Pakistan has taken concrete measures for making higher education relevant and responsive to the socio-economic needs and expectations of the society. Notwithstanding this, there lie some constraints and pitfalls which hinder the efforts to bring higher education at such level considered necessary for the socio-economic weal of the society. In this study effort has been made to review recommendations of all the education policies regarding higher education and their implementation and target achievement status.

Objectives of the Study

The study was conducted keeping in view following objectives:

1. To review recommendations of all the educational policies regarding higher education in Pakistan.

2. To investigate implementation and achievement status of recommendations regarding higher education fixed in all the education policies.

3. To suggest some measures to improve quality of higher education in Pakistan.

Methodology

Document analysis is a research method which is employed as a research tool to obtain relevant documentary data to support and validate facts essential to a research study. So, this study was completed using document analysis technique reviewing the recommendations of all the education policies regarding higher education. All the relevant data were collected after reviewing the relevant documents to find out facts about implementation and achievement status of higher education targets set in all the education policies.

Conceptual Framework

The conceptual framework is the system of concepts, assumptions, facts and theories that support the research. …

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