Academic journal article Journal of Media Research

Ideology, Control and Exclusion in the Intercultural Studies and Intercultural Communication: A Critical Perspective 1

Academic journal article Journal of Media Research

Ideology, Control and Exclusion in the Intercultural Studies and Intercultural Communication: A Critical Perspective 1

Article excerpt

Introduction

In this work, there is an intention to understand intercultural studies and intercultural communication as a discourse and a functional practice for economical and sociopolitical targets. Likewise, the understanding as an attempt to epistemological, methodological and praxeological location of the object, as long as the discourse in determined social, political and ideological contexts. In this way, there will be an explanation of intercultural studies and intercultural communication from a critical and genealogical perspective.

In those hypothesis, it is argued that intercultural studies and intercultural communication come up as a tool to resolve certain sociopolitical and economical conflicts in the State-nations that are historically represented by etno-reivindicative and migratory processes along with the resulting coexistence of ethnic groups and immigrants, and the military intervention in different cultural sceneries during the global geopolitical realignment, especially from the World War II.

This work is based on four main parts. The first part deals with a genealogical and critical revision of intercultural studies and intercultural communication, understanding it as an ideology and control form. The second part deals with the idea of revision of the corresponding development and strengthening of those studies since the contributions of some theories and disciplines (linguistics, discourse, among others). The third part focuses on the inclusion/exclusion ethnic community case in some dichotomies such as urban/rural and modern/premodern. The last part also focuses on ethnic communities where there is a brief revision of their incorporation on the media centrist logic of the media social discourse. In all of the cases, there is an interest to deal with the comprehension/incomprehension relationship from the other as an individual using the full exercise of his/her subjectivity.

Beginning of the intercultural studies and intercultural communication as ideology and control

There are many definitions of intercultural communication. But there is one definition set up by Stella Ting-Toomey that is especially interesting. Ting-Toomey (1999) established that the elements of intercultural communication are: two people (or two groups) of different cultures (with the definition of "culture" being quite broad) in interaction who negotiate common meaning. Although, this is a good example of what we should understand by intercultural communication, this is quite probably that the anthropologist Edward Hall (1959) is the first author who mentioned the intercultural Communicationconcept, whose notion was strongly consolidated in the '60s, particularly in ethnic minorities and afroascendant reivindications and demands and for the military conflict in Vietnam.

Nevertheless, the notion of interculturality can be early found in Georg Simmel's works (1908) and his notion of "stranger", whose work would have had an impact in the following works of the American philosopher Robert Ezra Park (1913). Park developed the concept of "marginal man" to refer to a person who is located in the limits or margins of two different cultural worlds, and who is not a member of none of them. For Park, whose work is focused on the racial as-similation, in particular the Afro-American case, the relationship between communication and culture is due to the culture is integrated for all of which is communicated. Communication makes possible the consensus and understanding among individuals who form the social group. Therefore, communication generates integrative conditions among different social elements, such as costumes, expectations, and others. In conclusion, according to Park, communication allows the functioning of society. By considering María Rosa Berganza's work (2000), we could say that Park and Simmel pointed out that the function of communication is keeping the unity and integrity of the cultural group according to two dimensions: time and space. …

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