Academic journal article Journal of Organizational Culture, Communications and Conflict

Too Much of a Good Thing in Employment Counseling

Academic journal article Journal of Organizational Culture, Communications and Conflict

Too Much of a Good Thing in Employment Counseling

Article excerpt

INTRODUCTION

Employment counseling has been a core element of workforce development since the early 1960s. A service, focused on career development, job placement and other counseling services with the primary objective of improving workforce performance. Government and industry leaders, alike, have embraced the idea that employment counseling supports employee's professional development and job satisfaction, which in aggregate, supports a strong competitive workforce.

There is a tendency to conclude that if a little is good then more must be better, but life is rarely linear and in some cases, what is good in small quantities often becomes harmful in larger doses (Csikszentmihalyi, 1999). Consider drinking wine. According to the American Heart Association, more than 60 prospective studies have suggested that moderate alcohol consumption-defined by the Department of Health and Human Services Dietary Guidelines for Americans as having no more than one drink per day for women and no more than two drinks per day for men-may decrease the risk of chronic heart disease (CHD), ischemic heart disease and stroke, and other causes of mortality. Research shows that moderate drinkers are at less of a risk for CHD and other causes of mortality than nondrinkers though heavy drinkers are at a much greater risk (Rudis, 2010). While a glass or two of red wine daily can be beneficial, no one recommends drinking a bottle of wine daily. This article will test the assumption that "more is better" when approaching employment counseling while exploring the need for a greater degree of balance in facilitating employee well-being and performance.

Underlying the vast majority of existing psychology, counseling, and management literatures is the often unacknowledged assumption that positive traits, experiences, and emotions have monotonie, linear effects with respect to adaptation and performance. But research (e.g., Grant & Schwartz, 2011; Pierce & Aguinis, 2013; Quinlan, Janis, & Bales, 1982) suggests that there appears to be a robust curvilinear relationship associated with many positive phenomena such that moderate levels of many beneficial antecedents are optimal and that departures from these ranges are dysfunctional and maladaptive (see Figure 1). While Quinlan et al. (1982) advised counselors over 30 years ago to "... start thinking in terms of a family of inverted U-shaped curves to represent the interacting variables" (p. 184), this guidance appears to need revisiting (Miller, 2008). Accordingly, this paper attempts to address this need by briefly reviewing cultural traditions regarding the significance of moderation, examples of selected positive personal and organizational antecedents that have empirically illustrated nonmonotonic associations, and conclude with a call for balance and the importance of considering curvilinear relationships.

CULTURAL ADVISEMENTS

Proverbs and aphorisms, such as the Chinese "too much can be worse than too little," the Buddha's Middle Way, and its Western counterpart "everything in moderation; nothing in excess," suggest that this principle is widely accepted across cultures. In fact, these and similar sayings in both Eastern and Western cultures trace back to philosophers whose teachings have been highly influential in their respective regions (e.g., Aristotle, Buddha, and Confucius; Phillips, 2004). Modern scholars have labeled this universal advocacy for proportionality over extremity the doctrine of the mean (Aristotle, 1999; Confucius, 2004; Urmson, 1973). For its proponents, pursuing the Golden Mean, the Middle Path, or moderation as it is also known, is a moral and practical imperative (Hamburger, 1959). Confucius indicated that "Perfect is the virtue which is according to the Mean!" (2004, p. 2), the Buddha pointed out that moderation was the path to wisdom and enlightenment, and Aristotle said that happiness and success exist at the mean between the extremes of deficiency and excess (Nussbaum, 1995). …

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