Academic journal article International Electronic Journal of Elementary Education

The Effectiveness of the Creative Writing Instruction Program Based on Speaking Activities (CWIPSA)

Academic journal article International Electronic Journal of Elementary Education

The Effectiveness of the Creative Writing Instruction Program Based on Speaking Activities (CWIPSA)

Article excerpt


Language learning is based on four basic linguistic skills, which it aims to improve: listening, speaking, reading and writing. These are the basic skills that affect an individual's academic achievement throughout their academic lives and need to be used effectively both in day-to-day life and during their careers.

In addition to these four basic skills, creativity is another skill which language education aims to provide to individuals in the Turkish curriculum. As highlighted in the literature (Fishkin & Johnson, 1998; Honig, 2001; Runco, 2003), creativity can be defined in the broadest sense as "originality; going beyond the ordinary; the ability to think independently and versatilely". There are two different views on creativity: the first one is that it is innate; the second one is that it is a skill that exists in everyone and can be improved and revealed. According to Runco (2003), everyone unequivocally accepts the creativity of people such as Michelangelo, Mozart and Mark Twain. However, as far as the creativity of children in the educational environment is concerned, children who are original and beyond the norm can be defined as being creative even though this is unbelievable to adults. Common behaviours that include the personality traits of people who have the ability to think creatively can be listed as follows:

1) Thinking differently than others: the most important behavioural trait of people with improved creativity is confidence.

2) Delaying judgment: individuals usually judge their thoughts without evaluating them and tend to classify and place their thoughts in a systematic manner, even doing it unwittingly most of the time.

3) Thinking flexibly: they think without rules, boundaries or principles. They do not see the world in black and white. They use the gray in every area of life and they are flexible.

4) Spontaneity: thinking fast, they make it possible for many ideas to reveal themselves without passing through the filter of logic.

5) Synthesizing: this is the ability to associate certain concepts, ideas and symbols with each other, using imagination and achieving new, creative and different results. The more such associations are performed, the more creative ideas come out (Temizkan, 2010: 624-625).

The way that the educational environment is organized is also important for the development of the creativity the educational programs aim to provide students with. Producing creative and original ideas is only possible in a free educational environment. It is important that students can communicate with their friends and teachers comfortably, that they know that they will not be judged for their ideas and that they can feel safe and at ease. Evaluation should not leave students just feeling good or bad about what that have done, it should inform learners about the valuable parts of their works and provide guidance for future actions (Brookfield, 2015). In addition, the second important factor is that methods and techniques which improve creative thinking are used in the learningteaching process. As stated by Marzano et al. (1988), "creative thinking can also be taught with the aid of methods and materials especially designed for that purpose".

Students can mention their ideas through their speaking and writing skills, which are the narrative skills used in Turkish classes. Therefore, it should be an aim that, through speaking and writing activities, the skill of creativity is improved and creative ideas are revealed. One of the types of writing addressed in the Turkish curriculum is creative writing. Creative writing is the activity of reconstructing current knowledge, concepts, sounds, images and dreams in the memory and associating them with each other, therefore creating a new piece of writing; it is the transfer of an individual's feelings and thoughts about something onto paper, done freely, through imagination (Arthur & Zell, 1996). …

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