Academic journal article Journal of Positive Management

Work Life Balance as a Factor Influencing Well-Being

Academic journal article Journal of Positive Management

Work Life Balance as a Factor Influencing Well-Being

Article excerpt

1. introduction

The question on the issues that are important in people's lives is very necessary and crucial for scholarships of management sciences. Popular topic of many research are work-life balance and well-being. Though understanding of both categories is clear we still cannot say much about the linkage between them. Studies on well-being are quite recent and this topic is still in its infancy (Lyubomirsky et al., 2005), as well as studies on well-being in organizational settings. Research on well-being in organizational settings is still facing two major challenges - conceptual confusion surrounds psychological well-being (Danna and Griffin, 1999), and the uncertainty about the superiority of concurrent hedonic, eudaimonic, and integrative approaches. Work-life balance is the issue which has been well described and examined by scientists of organizational psychology, sociology and management. Many articles presents sets of determinants of worklife balance where there are organizational and individual factors as well. The aim of this paper is presenting a work-life balance issue as a factor influencing wellbeing. Authors through characterizing well-being and work-life balance search common variables that allow do research on the issues. The article is a conceptual paper ended with recommendations for further research.

2. Conceptualizations of psychological well - being

Psychological well-being is a concept gaining more and more attention in organizational sciences. Academics and practitioners advocate the importance of developing the optimal psychological health of workers rather than merely trying to heal mental illness (Dagenais-Desmarais and Savoie, 2012). Scholars generally acknowledge that mental or psychological health comprises two major dimensions (Achille, 2003; Keyes, 2005; Keyes and Lopez, 2002) - the negative dimension is usually called psychological distress, while its positive counterpart is often labeled psychological well-being (Keyes, 2006).

Current research on well-being has been derived from three main research perspectives: eudaimonic, hedonic and integral approach (Keyes et al., 2002; Ryan and Deci, 2001).

The eudaimonic approach focuses on meaning and self-realization and defines well-being in terms of the degree to which a person is fully functioning. The eudaimonic approach considers psychological well-being in terms of optimal functioning, meaning, and self-actualization (Ryan and Deci, 2000; Ryff and Keyes, 1995). The most frequent operationalization for this approach is Ryff's model, consisting of six dimensions: autonomy, environmental mastery, personal growth, positive relations with others, purpose in life, and self-acceptance (Ryff, 1989; Ryff and Keyes, 1995).

The hedonic approach studies psychological well-being in terms of happiness and life satisfaction (Dagenais-Desmarais and Savoie, 2012). This approach defines well-being in terms of pleasure attainment and pain avoidance. Although there are many ways to evaluate the pleasure/pain continuum in human experience, most research within the new hedonic psychology has used assessment of subjective well-being (SWB) (Diener and Lucas, 1999).

The main operationalization of this approach is based on indicators of positive affect, negative affect, and life satisfaction (Diener, 1984). Positive affection includes positive feelings such as confidence, interest, hope, pride, and joy while negative affection includes negative feelings such as rage, hate, guilt, and sadness. The affective component refers to emotions experienced in life with the idea that ''life is good'' if an individual experiences more positive than negative emotions. The life satisfaction dimension is a cognitive component of subjective well-being (Myers and Deiner, 1995). If people have more experiences that give pleasure; they are considered to have more subjective well-being. The cognitive component refers to individual's reflective judgment that his or her life is going well and is usually assessed with measures of life satisfaction. …

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