Academic journal article Journal of Behavioural Sciences

Translation and Validation of Tennessee Self Concept Scale

Academic journal article Journal of Behavioural Sciences

Translation and Validation of Tennessee Self Concept Scale

Article excerpt

Adolescence is a period of one's life that sets basis for stable and mature personality. An adolescent's potential to solve problems, knowledge of moral codes and social norms, and growing consciousness towards adulthood all play very important role in the development of self-concept (Burns, 1979). Emotional and societal associations also effect an adolescent's self-concept. Adolescents are conscious about their recognition and identity, which may lead to better self-awareness and feelings of power. Adolescents may become susceptible of perceiving discrepancies in their personalities and in later years of adolescence they resolve the conflicts and differences in the descriptions about them. Adolescents start viewing themselves in a way of regular and abstract personalities (Ahmad, Ghazali, & Hassan, 2011).

The knowledge about one's own capabilities and individuality is considered as self-concept. During early adolescence, self-concept is unstable but later on with growing age self-perceptions develop into more detailed, structured and precise form (Pastorino & Doyle-Portillo, 2013). Self-concept is the sum total of perceptions that the adolescents have about themselves: it is the set of attributes, characteristics, qualities, deficiencies, capabilities, relationships and values that an adolescent desire to refer as his/her description and perceives it as his/her distinctiveness (Sanchez & Roda, 2007). Self-concept is the reflection of an individual's physical, ethical and social personality and is the collection of a person's beliefs and cognitions about his/her personality (Weiten, Dunn, & Hammer, 2012).

Previous research has not supported the self-concept as unidimensional construct due to its insufficient explanation of behavior in diverse settings. Scheirer and Kraut (1999) emphasized on multidimensional characteristic of self-concept and emphasized that selfconcept should not conceptualized as a simple phenomenon. As it is multifaceted construct having evocative, comparative, evaluative and emotional aspects which should be discriminated. Self-concept is context-dependent and multidimensional learned behavioral pattern, which reflects an individual's assessment of past experiences and behaviors that influence an individual's existing behaviors and predicts an individual's potential future behaviors (Bracken, 1996).

Marsh and Carven (2006) suggest that various aspects of adolescents social and personal dimensions are highlighted by multidimensional aspect of self-concept, which in turn uncovers the dynamic and complex organization of individual's self-concept. Earlier research revealed multidimensional nature of self-concept by discovering adolescent's social, spiritual and material dimensions, affected by environmental factors (Epstein, 1983).

Parker Marsh, Ciarrochi, Marshall, and Abdul (2014) suggest that different dimensions of self-concept enable one: to logically understand the self across contexts; to predict behaviour; better evaluate the effectiveness of interventions and provide the most suitable context for absorption with other constructs than any universal measure of self-concept. However, there are researchers who focused on unidimensional nature of the self-concept (Baumeister, Campbell, Krueger, & Vohs, 2003).

Marsh, Trautwein, Lüdtke, Köller, and Baumert (2006) projected the multidimensional side of self-concept, for the explanation of diverse aspects of persons' personal and social dimensions that in turn reveal complex and dynamic organizations of adolescents' self-concepts. Deep knowledge facilitates researchers to make recommendations towards the improvement, creation and execution of interventions geared to selfconcept development in the search to make best use of human potential. Previous studies suggest that internal comparison processes are not only in operation when self-concept is predicted by achievement, but also when self-concept predicts later achievement and achievement-related outcomes (Parker, Lüdtke, Trautwein, & Roberts, 2012). …

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