Academic journal article Iranian Journal of Public Health

A Path Model of Job Stress Using Thai Job Content Questionnaire (Thai-JCQ) among Thai Immigrant Employees at the Central Region of Thailand

Academic journal article Iranian Journal of Public Health

A Path Model of Job Stress Using Thai Job Content Questionnaire (Thai-JCQ) among Thai Immigrant Employees at the Central Region of Thailand

Article excerpt

Introduction

In global era and resulting from ASEAN economic community (AEC)'s policy to induce rapid economic, social, and environmental changes. These changes led to the change of employee system, especially, Thai immigrant employees in Asia. AEC and Eastern Asia have an incremental trend of moving change of employees. It appears that the complexity of employment conditions increases (1). The characteristic of employees' movement among all employees in many countries has the employee, native as well as foreigners, moving within countries and between countries. The incremental employee movement increased from past became an important turning point in employees lifestyle. It is associated with working conditions, workloads, job insecurities, and wages. These resulted in stress to both immigrant employees, that is to say native and foreign immigrant employees within countries and between countries in AEC group (2).

Thailand is one of ASEAN countries within AEC. It still needs many employees like other ASEAN countries. Implementation of AEC's policy led to the incremental working's turning lifestyle among Asian professional employees from western countries to ASEAN countries (2), as the same times, the majority of Thai immigrant employees who are the major empowerment to drive Thai economic. They still need to work in Thailand.

Statistical data from National Statistical Office in 2014 found that Thai employees were stressed/ neurosis which were the third health problems in 2010 (56.42%), in 2011 (60.43%), and in 2011 (53.65 %). In 2011, mental and behavioral problems, and mental health problems were 62.35%, and 63.3%, respectively (3).

Job stress as social determinants of health and public health perspective explained about poverty, health inequality and inequity, discrimination, housing and environmental conditions, working conditions, which related to physical and mental health under public health working. This concept linked to working conditions so that characteristic of job /employment conditions became a pressure, and tensions bringing job stress. Previous researchers found that monopoly of capitalist government policy, rapid social network, high competitive labor market, workloads, differences job and environmental conditions were linked to different stress level among Thai farmers, and farm workers (4, 5), as the same for academic staffs in universities (6-8). Working conditions are a factor linked to health inequalities. Different job conditions and wages among female academic university employees were related to occupational stress (9), besides, Thai immigrant employees National Research Council of Thailand. The causes of occupational stress among native employees and immigrant employees in conclusion were workloads (10, 11), working conditions (12, 13), low wages (14, 15) and job insecurities (16). As a result, occupational stress led to sickness absence (17), turnover, atherosclerosis (18), hypertension, silicosis (19), lung cancer (4), stress at work and home (20), and health inequality (13, 21).

The hypothesis is an increment in hard working conditions, high workloads, low job securities, and low wages lead to job stress among Thai immigrant employees at the central region of Thailand.

Operational definitions of this research consisted of working conditions, workloads, job securities by using a 4-point Likert scale ranging from none (1) to (4) as the most, and job stress by using the Thai Job Content Questionnaire (Thai-JCQ) (22) which it applied from Karasek. Total items were 54 questions (6 domains). Working conditions were taken to be factors such as the exploitation of the employees by the employers, characteristic of occupation and environment at workplace had effect on job stress. Workloads were taken to be the controlling of job task/ products per hour or day, the consideration of the amount of working hours per day related to wage, the evaluation of job task in a period to collect data for promotion/ qualification, the control to determine how suitable is the job task. …

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