Academic journal article Gender & Behaviour

Dietary Behaviour among Male and Female Chronic Disease Patients in Cambodia, Myanmar and Vietnam

Academic journal article Gender & Behaviour

Dietary Behaviour among Male and Female Chronic Disease Patients in Cambodia, Myanmar and Vietnam

Article excerpt

Introduction

Chronic conditions are commonly reported among adults in Southeast Asian countries, including Cambodia, Myanmar and Vietnam, such as cardiovascular disease (CVD), diabetes, hypertension, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), cancer, kidney disease, or musculoskeletal disorders (Ir, Men, Lucas, Meessen, Decoster, Bloom & Van Damme, 2010; Jacobs, Collias, Rana, Wallace, Kane & Boesler, 2015; Lâm, Ekerljung, Ng, Rönmark, Larsson & Lundbäck, 2014; Lim, Lam, Muttalif, Yunus, Wongtim, Lan,..., de Guia, 2015; Low, Lee & Samy 2015; Htet, Alam & Mahal, 2014; Pham, Au, Blizzard, Truong, Schmidt, Granger & Dwyer, 2009; Siegel, Patel & Ali, 2014; Thomas, van Pelt, Mehrotra, Robinson-Cohen & LoGerfo, 2014; Van Minh, Ng, Juvekar, Razzaque, Ashraf, Hadi,... Byass, 2008).

One of the major behavioural risk factors for many chronic conditions including non-communicable diseases (NCDs) is an unhealthy diet (Low et ak, 2015). Dietary risk behaviours have been identified for a number of chronic diseases, including cardiovascular disease, diabetes, hypertension, COPD, gout and certain cancers (Abnet, Corley, Lreedman & Kamangar, 2015; Bartlem, Bowman, Bailey, Lreund, Wye, Lecathelinais, Wiggers, 2015; Hanson, Ruhen, Wouters & Rennard, 2014; Nguyen, Pham, Lee & Binns, 2015; Roddy & Choi, 2014; Schwingshackl & Hoffmann, 2015). Dietary health risk behaviours include, for example, low fruit and vegetable consumption (in Vietnam ranging from 59.4% to 87% among men and 52% to 88% among women) (Hoy, Rao, Nhung, Marks & Hoa, 2013; Kanungsukkasem, Ng, Van Minh, Razzaque, Ashraf, Juvekar, ... Huu Bich, 2009 ), high sugar consumption (sugar sweetened beverages, 35% once of more times a week) (Lim, Banwell, Bain, Banks, Seubsman, Kelly, ..., Sleigh, 2014). Processed foods tend to be high in nutrients associated with obesity and diet-related noncommunicable diseases: refined sugar, salt, saturated and trans-fats (Baker & Friel, 2014). Sugar, salt and fat consumption from processed foods has rapidly increased in the lower-middle and upper-middle-income countries (Baker & Friel, 2014). Carbonated soft drinks, baked goods, and oils and fats are the most significant vectors for sugar, salt and fat respectively (Baker & Friel, 2014). Ismail, Tänzer and Dingle (1997) expressed concern with a rise in the consumption of sugarcontaining carbonated beverages, high-sugar desserts and snacks in Southeast Asian countries including Vietnam. Several studies have found differences in food choice between men and women, i.e., women were reported to have higher intakes of fruit and vegetables, higher intakes of dietary fiber, lower intakes of fat and lower intakes of sugar-sweetened soft drinks than men (French, Rosenberg, Wood, Maitland, Shilton, Pratt & Buzzacott, 2013; Pengpid & Peltzer, 2015; Wardle, Haase, Steptoe, Nillapun, Jonwutiwes & Bellisle, 2004; Westenhoefer, 2005).

Chronic disease patients should be involved in lifestyle-related chronic disease prevention and management (Gaskins, Sloane, Mitchell, Ammerman, Ickes & Williams, 2007). In order to develop successful interventions for chronic disease patients, factors influencing dietary behaviour need to be understood. Therefore, the aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence and relationship of dietary behaviour among male and female patients diagnosed with a variety of chronic diseases in three Southeast Asian countries (Cambodia, Myanmar and Vietnam).

Methods

Sample and procedure

In each Southeast Asian country (Cambodia, Myanmar, Vietnam) a cross-sectional survey in rural and urban health facilities was conducted with out-patients with chronic diseases. The sample size included at least 800 persons from rural health facilities and 800 individuals from urban health facilities in each country. The health facilities in urban and rural areas were conveniently selected. Every eligible patient (18 years and above and having been treated for a chronic disease in the past 12 months) was selected from the health facility, using a systematic sampling procedure. …

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