Academic journal article Gender & Behaviour

Contributions of Perfectionism and Social Support to the Prediction of Work-Family Conflict among Women Academics in Oyo State, Nigeria

Academic journal article Gender & Behaviour

Contributions of Perfectionism and Social Support to the Prediction of Work-Family Conflict among Women Academics in Oyo State, Nigeria

Article excerpt

Introduction

Past studies on interaction between work and family have indicated that although people who are deeply involved in the world of work are prone to work-family strain, it is more prevalent among women (Opie, 2011; Allen & Finkelstein, 2014; Poelmans, O'Driscoll & Beham, 2005; Yang & Hawkins, 2004; Friedman & Greenhaus 2000). The prevalence is well noted among women who are in heterosexual relationship (Geurts & Demerouti, 2003), with children (Brown 2010; Losonez & Bortolotto, 2009) and who are in dual earning and leadership post (Brown 2010; Ahmad 1999). The palpable justification for women not being able to strike a balance between work and family is linked to the fact that women are saddled with a gamut of responsibilities which embrace performing the role of employee, motherhood and that of a spouse (Opie, 2011; Adam, 2008).

Despite increasing involvement of women in the world of work, perhaps for the purpose of boosting the family income or for prestige and career self-esteem among many other possible reasons, they are still required to implement their convectional functions of being a caregiver and companion (Bergman, Ahmad & Steward, 2008). The requirements of these numerous tasks often fall extremely on women in family relationship. For instance, researchers like Craig (2006) as well as Bianchi and Melissa (2010) affirmed that within the family circle women still perform most of the housekeeping and childcare. It is bvious that females like their male Teachers arts, especially professionals, are repeatedly encumbered with stress of long hours of work-per week, working overtime and high workloads, time pressures, stressful and difficult roles. Despite these, women are expected to perform these roles without a decrease in their obligations as spouse, homemaker and mother (Treistman, 2004). This has often made it more arduous for women to create enough time and energy for both family roles and job responsibilities. Hence, interrole conflict often occurs as women struggle to square the requirements of work and family roles.

The influx of studies on work-family strain on women as most vulnerable could not be separated from the attached consequences of this conflict on work, family and personal well-being of the affected individuals. A little review of literature has demonstrated that work-family conflict possesses an inverse relationship with job performance (Karatepe & Sokmen, 2006) and job-satisfaction (Lee & Choo 2001, Bhowon 2013; Bhuian, Mengue, Borsboom 2005; Ahmad 2008). In addition, it has been linked with job stress (Bacharach, Bamberger & Conley, 1991), absenteeism (Hepburn & Barling, 1996), desiring to quite work (Aryee, 1992), lack of commitment to organization and poor work morale (Allen, Herst, Bruck & Sutton, 2000). The negative antecedents of WFC on personal and family well beings also include low level of marital satisfaction (Akanbi & Oyewo 2014; Kalliath, Kalliath & Singh 2011) and family dissatisfaction (Bhowon, 2013, Kalliath, et al, 2011). The effect also include Psychological strain and poor mental health (Kalliath, et-al 2011; Kinnune, Feldt, Geurts, Pulkkinen 2006) which can be in form of depression and anxiety (Lapierre & Allen, 2006); emotional exhaustion (Ahmad, 2008), insomnia (Williams, Franche, Ibrahim, Mustard & Layton, 2006), Physical ailments (Lu, 2007) and general dissatisfaction with life (Hill, 2005).

Work-Family Conflict (WFC) is viewed as a form of interrole conflict in which the demands of work and family roles are incompatible in some respect, so that participation in one role is more difficult because of participation in another role (Greehaus & Beutell, 1985). This definition of WFC suggests a two-edged conflict as observed by previous researcher (Frone, 2000). One is Work-Family conflict (WFC): A form of interrole conflict in which the general demands of, time devoted to, and strain created by the job interfere with performing family related responsibilities (Netemeyer, Boles & McMurrian, 1996). …

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