Academic journal article Middle East Quarterly

Youth and Revolution in the Changing Middle East, 1908-2014

Academic journal article Middle East Quarterly

Youth and Revolution in the Changing Middle East, 1908-2014

Article excerpt

Youth and Revolution in the Changing Middle East, 1908-2014. By Haggai Erlich. Boulder: Lynne Rienner, 2015. pp. 339. $69.95.

Erlich, professor emeritus at Tel Aviv University, looks at the evolution of Middle East educational systems over a century's time, from their traditional beginnings to their modern forms. His book assesses the impact on society and political development of the introduction of universal education and its institutionalization-especially at the university level.

Military reformers such as Egypt's Muhammad Ali, the Ottoman Sultan Mahmud II, and Iran's Fath Ali Shah introduced Western secular education to the region in the first half of the nineteenth century, followed by Christian missionaries in the second half. Only with the rise of secular nationalism in the first decade of the twentieth century, however, did education become universal.

Muslim reformers in the Middle East, whether monarchical, military, or Islamist, generally have excluded the college-educated from the political process. This in turn led university youth to mobilize extra-legally. The long-term failure of both political and economic development has frustrated the youth, eventually unleashing the Arab upheavals of 2011. …

Search by... Author
Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

Oops!

An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.