Academic journal article Childhood Obesity

Associations between Sleep Duration and Indicators of Cardiometabolic Disease in Canadian Children and Adolescents: Analyses of the 2007-2009 Canadian Health Measures Survey

Academic journal article Childhood Obesity

Associations between Sleep Duration and Indicators of Cardiometabolic Disease in Canadian Children and Adolescents: Analyses of the 2007-2009 Canadian Health Measures Survey

Article excerpt

[Author Affiliation]

Larine Sluggett. 1 School of Health Sciences, University of Northern British Columbia, Prince George, British Columbia, Canada.

Shannon L. Wagner. 1 School of Health Sciences, University of Northern British Columbia, Prince George, British Columbia, Canada.

Cindy Hardy. 2 Psychology Department, University of Northern British Columbia, Prince George, British Columbia, Canada.

R. Luke Harris. 1 School of Health Sciences, University of Northern British Columbia, Prince George, British Columbia, Canada.

Address correspondence to: Shannon L. Wagner, PhD, School of Health Sciences, University of Northern British Columbia, 3333 University Way, Prince George, British Columbia V2N4Z9, Canada, E-mail: shannon.wagner@unbc.ca

Increased rates of obesity have been observed in Canadian children and adolescents in recent years. For example, between 1981 and 2009, the prevalence of overweight or obesity in Canadian youth aged 15-19 years increased from 14% to 31% in boys and from 14% to 25% in girls.1 This is particularly concerning since the symptoms of metabolic syndrome including obesity, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and impaired carbohydrate metabolism are strongly associated with the development of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes later in life.2 Type 2 diabetes was considered nonexistent in Canadian children 20 years ago,3 but in the last few decades, the prevalence of diabetes has been rising globally. At 0.3%, the prevalence of type 2 diabetes in children and youth remains low in Canada, but it is rising, especially among certain groups such as Aboriginal populations.4

A large body of research has demonstrated that short sleep duration is linked to the following indicators of cardiometabolic disease: overweight/obesity (OWOB), hyperinsulinemia, and dyslipidemia.5,6 However, the majority of these studies have focused on adults. Several cross-sectional or longitudinal studies have demonstrated negative associations between sleep duration and OWOB in children and children and adolescents in Australia,7 the United States,8-15 England,16,17 New Zealand,18 and Norway.19 The nature and strength of the relationships between sleep duration and OWOB vary among these studies. For example, age-corrected data from a study of 5-10-year-old children in the Canadian Province of Québec demonstrated an age-adjusted negative linear relationship between sleep duration and OWOB.20 By comparison, one study completed in the United States reported that among adolescents, short sleep duration was associated with increased BMI in males only.11 At the other end of this continuum, a recent study in Iran of 14-17-year olds did not observe any relationship between sleep duration and BMI in either boys or girls.21

Only a single study has examined associations between sleep duration and OWOB in Canadian children,20 and that study was not nationally representative. No studies have explored associations between sleep duration and OWOB in Canadian adolescents. Given the variety of studies on this topic--and the variability in the findings reported--it is important to clarify using the data available what sleep duration-OWOB relationships may exist for the entirety of the Canadian pediatric population. This will support establishing relevant public health measures or recommendations, if required, at a national level in Canada, within the framework of the healthcare system and federal health policies that already exist here.

Study Objectives

There are two main objectives of this study. The primary objective of this study is to address a gap in the literature by investigating associations between short sleep duration and cardiometabolic risk factors in a nationally representative sample of Canadian children and adolescents. …

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