Academic journal article Pakistan Journal of Criminology

Parental Acceptance-Rejection and Delinquent Behaviouramong Adolescents: A Case Study of Slum Areas of Islamabad

Academic journal article Pakistan Journal of Criminology

Parental Acceptance-Rejection and Delinquent Behaviouramong Adolescents: A Case Study of Slum Areas of Islamabad

Article excerpt

Introduction

In the modern time period juvenile delinquency has become worldwide dilemma that has hindered the constructive growth of society on a larger extent (Nas, DeCastro, &Koops, 2005). Delinquency is separate from crime in a way that a crime is an act that breaks the society's written laws referred as criminal code whereas delinquency refers to those acts that are deviant to cultural laws or standards. Delinquency includes a variety of norm-breaking behaviours for which adolescents are illegitimately responsible; drug use, violent acts against other persons and carrying weapon are some example of delinquency (Marte, 2008).

In Pakistan, during 2008 and 2009 the overall recorded juvenile crimes were estimated to be 374,076 and 383,383 with an increase ratio of 2.487%, as compared to 380,737 and 419,690 during 2010-2011, respectively (Tahir, Kauser, Tousif, Nazir, Arshad, & Butt, 2011). Yearly crime statistics of Punjab depicts 47.34% increase in reported theft cases and 69.62% increase in burglary incidents, whereas about 24,704 theft cases and 8,704 incidents of burglary were reported in 2007 as compared to 36,400 and 14,764 in 2011 (Ahmad, 2014).

This rapid increase in adolescents crimes have made researchers obliged to investigate the factors inculcating the delinquent tendencies in adolescents and address this problem that has serious impact over the social and moral structure of the society. Evidence suggests that family serves as a primary institution where child's behaviour is encouraged, suppressed, modified or learned (Dishion & Patterson, 2006).In this regard, parental affection and attachment are considered as an important mechanism relative to delinquency. Literature illustratesthat adolescents perceived parental acceptance or rejection largely influence their social, behavioural and emotional capabilities (Kejerfors, 2007). Parental acceptance is the parental love and affection that can be expressed with physical (hugging, kissing, caressing, and comforting), verbal (praising, complimenting, and saying nice things to or about the child) and symbolic gestures. Whereas parental rejection is their aggression that refers to any behaviour physical (hitting, pushing, throwing things, and pinching), verbal (sarcastic, cursing, mocking, shouting, saying thoughtless, humiliating, or disparaging things to or about the child) and other hurtful, nonverbal symbolic gestures toward their children (Rohner, Khaleque, & Cournoyer, 2012).

Adolescents who are closer to their parents feel more affectionate and supporting and have strong self-control that helps them involve lesser in delinquency and other behavioural issues (Barnes, Hoffman, & Welte, 2006). Likewise adolescent's perception of strong relationship with parents make them more responsible, they respect the rules and regulations made for them, and withhold themselves from engaging in delinquent behaviour because they feel accountable, as compared to their peers who have weak bonding with their parents (Church, Wharton, & Taylor, 2009).

On the other hand, parenting to young children and adolescents in slum settlements is phenomenon of great difficulty and concern. Such parents face economic hardships and to encounter this poverty they usually work day and night and cannot keep themselves updated with their children's whereabouts. As a consequence, they get rude and aggressive with law abiding behaviours like early involvement in risky sexual behaviours and unintentional pregnancy (Mumah, Kabiru, Izugbara, & Mukiira, 2014). Literature also signifies that the families where parentchild relationship is not strong can be the result of; their low socioeconomic background, family headed by uneducated parents, living in disadvantage neighbourhoods and facing financial difficulties. These distressing conditions have, in turn, been found to increase depression and negatively impact parental warmth and attentiveness toward children (White, Roosa, Weaver, & Nair, 2009). …

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