Academic journal article Pakistan Journal of Criminology

Role of Economic Position and Electronic Media on Juvenile Delinquency in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa

Academic journal article Pakistan Journal of Criminology

Role of Economic Position and Electronic Media on Juvenile Delinquency in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa

Article excerpt

(ProQuest: ... denotes formulae omitted.)

Introduction

Juvenile delinquency is becoming a global problem in the world today (Schwartz and Johnson,2012). Delinquency a legal term for criminal behavior carried out by a juvenile is often the result of escalating problematic behavior. It has been defined differently by three perspectives on delinquency. According to first perspective or from a parental view it is a disruptive and delinquent behavior as disobedience fighting with siblings, destroying or damaging property, stealing money from family members, or threatening parents with violence. Second perspective or educational view cite it through school staff members often regard delinquent behavior as that which interrupts or disturbs classroom learning violates the school code of conduct and threatens the safety of faculty and students. Third perspective is mental health view about juvenile delinquency (Steinberg, 1996). Juvenile delinquency include not only those minor acts who actually broken the law but also those who are likely to do so. It includes whose attitude to other individuals, to the community to law full authority is such that it may lead him/her to breaking the law (Changizi, 2007). Juvenile delinquency is thus an anti-social personality disorder which is really harmful for society it is deviant behavior that emerges usually by the age of 15 and goes along through adolescence and adulthood (Muhammad, 2012).

Poverty has a strong association with the crimes. Low income level people have high level of alienation as compare to high income people so they are more likely tend to commit crimes (O'Donnell et al. 2006; Smith and Bohm, 2008). The relationship between poverty and violence holds across different sorts of violent crimes including murder, assault and domestic violence (Kelly, 2000; Martinez, 1996; Parker, 1989; Pride more, 2011). Lower class youth more likely to commit crimes as compare to upper class because they lack immediate material wealth (i.e., income), social recognition, and social standing relative to middle and upper class; hence, they engage in delinquent behaviors like theft, violence, and vandalism to oppose inequalities (Piff et al. 2012; Reay 2005). High income families' children parents have good occupation and studying in quality educational institutions. This decrease their chances of indulgence in juvenile delinquency as compare to their opposite counterparts (Uche, 1994). Various studies reported that poverty is the main cause of crime and criminals often belong from poor family background. Further, the boys who run from homes and live on streets for survival have been involved in stealing goods or properties (Prior and Paris, 2005).Many other social factors compel a person to become juvenile delinquents. Socio-cultural change, political instability, financial uncertainty and governmental bad policies negatively affect young people mind (Postman, 1982). Also financial problems, economic inequality and instability are usually associated with unemployment among youth which further increase the probability of their involvement in delinquency (Mooney lindaet al., 1997).A Cambridge study found that among 16 to 18 years olds delinquency rate was three times higher while unemployed than employed. These unemployed delinquents offended only for material gains. Further it revealed that low status job employed youth have much greater rate of offences than high status job youth (Farrington et al., 1986).

One of important cause of the emergence of violent behavior is invention of television. Aggressive programs on television and other channels not only lead to aggression but also create problems such as character building problems in juvenile (Huesmann and Miller in Savage, 2004). Media may have both positive and negative impacts on every individual but children in particular are not fully mature regarding the impacts therefore they are the most affected by such kind of material (Sana et al. …

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