Academic journal article Kuram ve Uygulamada Egitim Bilimleri

Adaptation of Self-Control and Self-Management Scale (SCMS) into Turkish Culture: A Study on Reliability and Validity

Academic journal article Kuram ve Uygulamada Egitim Bilimleri

Adaptation of Self-Control and Self-Management Scale (SCMS) into Turkish Culture: A Study on Reliability and Validity

Article excerpt

According to management science, employees control themselves when they are involved in an organization and this phenomenon is called "self-management" (Manz & Sims, 1980). At first, self-management was based on the concept of self-control developed in clinical psychology (Cautela, 1969 as cited in Neck & Houghton, 2006). In brief, self-management consists of strategies designed to help an individual to manage his behaviors related to reduction of the inconsistencies with the externally determined standards. Self-control and self-management skills developed by Kanfer (1970) and Bandura (1991) are a three-component model consisting of three processes interconnected to one another: "Self-monitoring" (SM), "Self-Evaluating" (SE), and "Self-Reinforcing" (SR). In SM stage, the individual monitors some behavior targeted for change or maintenance (such as actions, thoughts or emotions) and draws attention to informative stimuli. In the stage of SE, the individual compares the target behavior and internalized standard. He passes judgment on whether the monitored stimuli progresses towards valuable targets or not. Finally, in the light of this comparison, the individual engages in SR which can be either open or secret and involves self-rewarding or self-punishment. In other words, this includes the implementation or lack of reward (Mezo, 2009; Mezo & Short, 2012). Then, the results of the self-control and self-management skills has an effect on whether the feedback loop will be repeated or not, changed or not, or used or not. A shy woman who wants to meet people can be given as an example to this recursive feedback loop. Despite her shyness, the woman tries to realize that a new social interaction is quite harmless (SM), her performance in this social situation is not bad (SE) and that is why she admires herself for her social behavior (SR) thanks to emotions for new social interactions and encouraging thoughts experienced in the future. This person certainly cannot cope with her shyness for the first time, but her capacity increases with each recursive loop in order to meet a new person, namely, with recursive implementation of self-control and self-management skills, she becomes less shy. Therefore, the individual can exert control on low probability target behavior which will occur in future by evaluation of stimuli associated with that behavior and repeatedly reinforcing effective monitoring (Mezo, 2009).

In literature, self-management is collected under three different titles. The first one is self-leadership in the field of industry/organizational psychology, the second one is self-regulation in health psychology, and the last one is studied as "mindfulness" especially in clinical psychology (Yaka, 2011). This study mostly lays emphasis on the self-management based on self-leadership in the field of industry/organizational psychology because human beings must be able to lead themselves first and then they must share this process with others (Houghton, Neck, & Manz, 2003; Manz, 1992).

Self-management can be regarded as a cluster of strategies that help employees structure the work environment while generating self-motivation. Self-leadership involves self-management behavior (Neck & Houghton, 2006); however, there is central difference between them. Self-management is associated with a series of behavioral and cognitive strategies which people are required to perform and reflect rational appearance. Self-leadership goes beyond this to put an important emphasis on the internal value of the tasks and self-management depends on external control. The differences between self-management and external control can be uncertain according to the viewpoint adopted. Self-management emphasizes rewards that are received when completing a task and that are separate from the task like praising oneself, external recognition, and reward. In short, self-management consists of a series of strategies that facilitate behaviors that serve to reduce deviations from the existing standards so that an individual can manage his own behaviors (Manz, 1986). …

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